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Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to .

Commission file number 001-36076

 

FATE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

65-1311552

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

12278 Scripps Summit Drive, San Diego, California

 

92131

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

(858) 875-1800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

FATE

NASDAQ Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ or No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ or No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ or No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262 (b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $2,340,000,000 as of June 30, 2022 based upon the closing sale price on The Nasdaq Global Market reported for such date. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director and certain holders of more than 10% of the outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. Shares of common stock held by other persons, including certain other holders of more than 10% of the outstanding shares of common stock, have not been excluded in that such persons are not deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, as of February 22, 2023 was 98,161,823.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on or before the date 120 days after the conclusion of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this annual report on Form 10-K.

 


Table of Contents

 

FATE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Annual Report on Form 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Page

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

 

1

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

3

PART I

Item 1.

 

Business

 

5

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

34

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

72

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

73

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

73

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

73

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of
Equity Securities

 

74

Item 6.

 

[Reserved]

 

75

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

76

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

90

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

92

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

123

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

123

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

125

Item 9C.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

125

PART III

 

126

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

126

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

126

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

126

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

126

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

126

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

127

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

127

SIGNATURES

 

132

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

 

Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below under the heading “Risk Factors” and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) before making investment decisions regarding our common stock.

Our product candidates represent a novel therapeutic approach to treating cancer and autoimmune disorders and may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or halt their clinical development, prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences. If we fail to complete the preclinical or clinical development of, or to obtain regulatory approval for, our product candidates on a timely basis or at all, our business would be significantly harmed.
We use induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and gene-editing technology in the creation of our product candidates. Both technologies are relatively new technologies, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of product candidate development and obtaining regulatory approval. If we are unable to use these technologies in the creation of our product candidates, our business would be significantly harmed.
We may face delays in initiating, conducting or completing our clinical trials, including due to difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, securing adequate clinical supply of our product candidates, and obtaining sufficient quantities of other components and supplies necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials, including agents such as cyclophosphamide or fludarabine which are often required to condition patients for treatment with our product candidates, or certain monoclonal antibodies which are intended for administration to patients in combination with our product candidates in certain of our clinical trials, and we may not be able to initiate, conduct or complete them at all.
Initial, interim and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data. Furthermore, results from our ongoing or future clinical trials involving our product candidates may differ materially from initial, interim and preliminary data.
The manufacture and distribution of our cell product candidates are complex and subject to a multitude of risks. These risks could substantially limit the clinical and commercial supply of our product candidates and increase our costs, and the development and commercialization of our product candidates could be significantly delayed or restricted if the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or other regulatory authorities impose additional requirements on our manufacturing operations or if we are required to change our manufacturing operations to comply with regulatory requirements.
We have limited experience manufacturing our product candidates on a clinical scale, and no experience manufacturing on a commercial scale. Any failure by us or any third parties on whom we depend to manufacture our product candidates consistently and under the proper conditions may result in delays to our clinical development plans and impair our ability to obtain approval for, or commercialize, our product candidates.
Our inability to manufacture sufficient quantities of our product candidates, or the loss of our third-party contract manufacturers, or our or their failure to supply sufficient quantities of our product candidates at acceptable quality levels or prices, or at all, would materially and adversely affect our business.
We depend on third party suppliers, including sole source suppliers, for the provision of reagents, materials, devices and equipment that are used by us and our third-party contract manufacturers in the production of our product candidates, the loss of which could adversely impact our ability to conduct our clinical trials or commercialize our product candidates, if approved.
The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and global political and market instability, including as a result of the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, could adversely impact various aspects of our business, results of operations and financial condition, and could cause a disruption to our supply chain and the development and manufacture of our product candidates.
We may face challenges recruiting and retaining key personnel due to labor market changes, availability of qualified candidates, and competition for employees from other companies.
We may face cost fluctuations and inflationary pressures, including increases in prices of materials and costs of labor, which may adversely impact our operating performance, expenses, and results.

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We depend on strategic partnerships and collaboration arrangements for the development and commercialization of certain of our product candidates in certain indications or geographic territories, and if these arrangements are unsuccessful, this could result in delays and other obstacles in the development, manufacture or commercialization of any of our product candidates and materially harm our results of operations.
Development of our product candidates will require substantial additional funding, without which we will be unable to complete preclinical or clinical development of, or obtain regulatory approval for, our product candidates, and we may not be able to secure adequate funding on acceptable terms or on a timely basis.
We have a limited operating history, have incurred significant losses since our inception, and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, including in connection with the potential global development of our product candidates.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, or obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology and product candidates, other companies could develop products based on our technologies and discoveries, which may reduce demand for, or limit the commercial potential of, our products and harm our business.
If we fail to comply with our obligations under our license agreements, we could lose rights to our product candidates or key technologies.
We may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights to product components and processes for development or manufacture of our product candidates which may cause us to operate our business in a more costly or otherwise adverse manner that was not anticipated.
We do not have experience marketing any product candidates and do not have a sales force or distribution capabilities, and if our products are approved, we may be unable to commercialize them successfully.
The commercial success of our product candidates will depend upon the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payers and others in the medical community and may require additional generation of evidence development around areas like the anticipated short-term and long-term costs, comparative risks and benefits relative to standard of care and emerging therapies, and other value demonstrations.
We face increasing competition in an environment of rapid technological change from other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, and our operating results will suffer if we fail to compete effectively.
The success of our existing and any future product candidates is substantially dependent on developments within the field of cellular immunotherapy and autoimmunity, and to changes to clinical treatment standards, some of which are beyond our control.
Security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business.
Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and may be able to exercise significant control over our company.

The summary risk factors described above should be read together with the text of the full risk factors below, in the section entitled “Risk Factors”, and the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as in other documents that we file with the SEC. The risks summarized above or described in full below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not precisely known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects.

 

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FORWARD–LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, even if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We make such forward-looking statements pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and other federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these words or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;
the initiation, progress, success, cost and timing of our clinical trials and product development activities;
our ability and timing to advance our product candidates in, and to successfully initiate, conduct, enroll and complete, clinical trials;
the therapeutic potential of our product candidates, and the disease indications for which we intend to develop our product candidates;
the timing and likelihood of, and our ability to obtain and maintain, regulatory clearance of our Investigational New Drug (IND) applications for and regulatory approval of our product candidates;
the potential of our technology platform, including our induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) product platform, and our ability to leverage our platform in our research, development and commercialization activities for our product candidates;
our ability to manufacture our product candidates for clinical development and, if approved, for commercialization, and the timing and costs of such manufacture;
our ability to source clinical and, if approved, commercial materials and supplies used to manufacture our product candidates;
the performance of third parties in connection with the development and manufacture of our product candidates, including third parties conducting our clinical trials as well as third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
our ability to attract and retain strategic collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements and our ability, and the ability of our collaborators, to successfully develop product candidates under the respective collaborations;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to initiate and complete clinical trials of our product candidates;
our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities, whether alone or with actual or potential collaborators, to commercialize our product candidates, if approved;
our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates, if approved;
the size and growth of the potential markets for our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets;
regulatory developments and approval pathways in the United States and foreign countries for our product candidates;
the potential scope and value of our intellectual property rights;
our ability, and the ability of our licensors, to obtain, maintain, defend and enforce intellectual property rights protecting our product candidates, and our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties;
our ability to recruit and retain key personnel;
the accuracy of our projections and estimates regarding our revenues, expenses, capital requirements, cash utilization and need for additional financing;

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our ability to compete with rapidly evolving cell therapy technologies and respond to other developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and
other risks and uncertainties, including those described under Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Any forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K reflect our current views with respect to future events or to our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K also contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless the context requires otherwise, “Fate Therapeutics,” “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” means Fate Therapeutics, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

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PART I

ITEM 1. Business

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to bringing a first-in-class pipeline of programmed cellular immunotherapies to patients with cancer and autoimmune disorders. Our development of first-in-class cell therapy product candidates is based on a simple notion: we believe that better cell therapies start with better cells.

To create better cell therapies, we have pioneered a therapeutic approach that we generally refer to as cell programming: we create and engineer human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to incorporate novel synthetic controls of cell function; we generate a clonal master iPSC line for use as a renewable source of cell manufacture; and we direct the fate of the clonal master iPSC line to produce our first-in-class cell therapy product candidate. Analogous to master cell lines used to manufacture biopharmaceutical drug products such as monoclonal antibodies, we believe clonal master iPSC lines can be used to mass produce multiplexed-engineered cellular immunotherapies which are well-defined and uniform in composition, can be stored in inventory for off-the-shelf availability, can be combined and administered with other therapies, and can have broader patient reach.

Utilizing this therapeutic approach, we are advancing a cell therapy pipeline comprised of off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived natural killer (NK) and T-cell product candidates that are selectively designed, incorporate novel synthetic controls of cell function, and are intended to deliver multiple mechanisms of therapeutic importance to patients for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease. We have a deep pipeline of iPSC-derived, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-targeted NK and T-cell product candidates currently under development with multiple clinical trials ongoing:

 

Program

Indication

CAR Target(s)

# of Synthetic Controls

Development Stage

Partner

CAR NK Cell Programs

FT576

Multiple Myeloma

BCMA

4

Phase 1

 

FT522

B-cell Lymphoma

CD19; 41BB

5

Preclinical

 

Autoimmune Disorders

CD19; 41BB

5

Preclinical

 

CAR T-cell Programs

FT819

B-cell Lymphoma

CD19

2

Phase 1

 

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

CD19

2

Phase 1

 

FT825

Solid Tumors

HER2

7

Preclinical

Ono

Other CAR-targeted Programs

Undisclosed

Solid Tumors

Not disclosed

Not disclosed

Preclinical

Ono

Our Approach

The use of human cells as therapeutic entities has disease-transforming potential, and compelling evidence of medical benefit for cell therapy exists across a broad spectrum of severe, life-threatening diseases. Clinical investigation of cellular immunotherapy has been rapidly expanding. One particular form of cell-based cancer immunotherapy, CAR T-cell therapy, has emerged as a revolutionary and potentially curative therapy for patients with certain hematologic malignancies, including refractory cancers. In fact, multiple CAR T-cell therapies have now been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsed / refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapsed / refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, relapsed / refractory follicular lymphoma, relapsed / refractory mantle cell lymphoma, and relapsed / refractory multiple myeloma.

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Cell-based cancer immunotherapies undergoing clinical investigation today most often rely on the use of autologous, or a patient’s own, cells. The requirement to source, engineer, expand and deliver cells patient-by-patient is logistically complex, resource intensive and expensive, and can result in significant batch-to-batch variability in product identity, purity and potency as well as in manufacturing failures. Significant hurdles remain to ensure that cell-based cancer immunotherapies can be consistently manufactured and reliably delivered in a cost-effective manner and at the scale necessary to support broad patient access and widespread commercialization. Rather than rely on the use of a patient’s own cells, we seek to use clonal master iPSC lines to manufacture, develop and commercialize off-the-shelf cellular immunotherapies that are selectively designed, incorporate novel synthetic controls of cell function, and are intended to deliver multiple mechanisms of therapeutic importance to patients.

Human iPSCs possess the unique dual properties of unlimited self-renewal and differentiation potential into all cell types of the body. Our proprietary iPSC product platform combines multiplexed-engineering of human iPSCs with single-cell selection to create clonal master iPSC lines. Analogous to master cell lines used to manufacture biopharmaceutical drug products such as monoclonal antibodies, clonal master iPSC lines can be used for manufacture of multiplexed-engineered cell products that are well-defined and uniform in composition, can be mass produced at significant scale in a cost-effective manner, and can be stored in inventory and delivered off-the-shelf to maximize patient reach. As a result, we believe our platform is uniquely designed to overcome numerous limitations associated with the production of cell therapies using patient- or donor-sourced cells. Our iPSC product platform is supported by an intellectual property portfolio of over 400 issued patents and 450 pending patent applications.

Our Strategy

Our goal is to maintain and build upon our leadership position in bringing off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapy to patients with cancer and autoimmune disorders. We believe achieving this goal has the potential to transform patient outcomes by improving cell product consistency and potency, shortening time to treatment, enabling combination with other complementary therapies, increasing scale of manufacture while reducing production costs, and reaching more patients including earlier in care. The key pillars of our strategy include:

Capitalize on our leadership position in iPSC technology. Human iPSCs, with their unique capacity to be indefinitely expanded and differentiated in culture into any type of cell in the body, hold revolutionary potential for creating better cell therapies. The groundbreaking discovery that fully differentiated human cells can be induced to a pluripotent state through the expression of certain genes was recognized with the 2012 Nobel Prize in Science and Medicine. We believe iPSCs can be used to overcome key limitations inherent in many of the cell therapy product candidates undergoing development today, including the requirement to source, isolate, engineer and expand cells from an individual patient or healthy donor with each batch of production. These batch-to-batch manufacturing requirements are logistically complex and expensive, and can result in variable cell product identity, purity and potency as well as manufacturing failures.

We are applying our expertise in iPSC biology to genetically engineer, isolate and select single-cell iPSCs for clonal expansion, characterization and cryopreservation as clonal master iPSC lines. Analogous to master cell lines used to manufacture biopharmaceutical drug products such as monoclonal antibodies, we believe clonal master iPSC lines can be used to mass produce multiplexed-engineered cellular immunotherapies which incorporate novel synthetic controls of cell function, are well-defined and uniform in composition, can be stored in inventory for off-the-shelf availability, can be combined and administered with other therapies, and can have broader patient reach.

We have amassed significant internal expertise in the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) production of NK cells and T cells from clonal master iPSC lines. Our proprietary know-how includes: generating, engineering, isolating and characterizing single-cell iPSC clones; creating, qualifying, and cryopreserving clonal master iPSC lines; differentiating these clonal master cell iPSC lines to manufacture NK cells and T cells at large scale to enable off-the-shelf availability for the general patient population; and regulatory and quality expertise to enable clinical investigation of multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived NK cell and T-cell immunotherapy candidates. We have established our own fully-integrated infrastructure and operations to support GMP production for all phases of clinical development as well as initial commercialization.

Exploit off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived CAR NK cells in combination with monoclonal antibody therapy to mount a multi-antigen targeted attack. NK cells play a major role in the anti-tumor activity of certain tumor-targeting antibodies. NK cells express CD16, an activating receptor that binds to the Fc domain of IgG antibodies. Once activated through CD16, NK cells are able to destroy antibody-coated tumor cells and secrete cytokines, such as interferon gamma, to potentiate an adaptive immune response. This mechanism of action, referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is believed to be important for the treatment of a wide range of cancers. CD16 consists of two genomic variants, 158V and 158F, that confer high or low binding affinity, respectively, to the Fc domain of IgG antibodies. Numerous clinical trials with FDA-approved tumor-targeting antibodies, including rituximab (FDA-approved for certain cancers of the blood and lymphatic system), trastuzumab (FDA-approved for certain breast and gastric cancers) and cetuximab (FDA-approved for certain head and neck, non-small cell lung and colorectal cancers), have demonstrated

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that patients homozygous for the 158V variant, which is present in only about 15% of patients, have improved clinical outcomes. In addition, the expression of CD16 on NK cells has been shown to undergo considerable down-regulation in cancer patients, which can significantly limit anti-tumor activity.

Our off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived CAR NK cell product candidates incorporate a proprietary CD16 Fc receptor, which has two unique features designed to augment ADCC: a high-affinity homozygous 158V variant to promote high binding affinity and a modification to block its cleavage and down-regulation upon NK cell activation. As a result, we believe our iPSC-derived CAR NK cell product candidates may be combined with monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy to target more than one antigen expressed on tumor cells, which may lead to deeper and more durable responses. For example, the CD38-targeted mAb therapy daratumumab is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and has been shown to induce cell death through multiple mechanisms, including ADCC. However, because CD38 is also expressed on the body’s activated NK cells, daratumumab treatment can induce NK cell fratricide, which may impair the effectiveness of ADCC. In addition, NK cell function is often suppressed or absent in patients with multiple myeloma as a result of the cancer itself as well as treatment therapy, further reducing the effectiveness of daratumumab. FT576, our iPSC-derived, BCMA-targeted CAR NK cell product candidate for the treatment of multiple myeloma, incorporates four novel synthetic controls of cell function and is specifically designed to be administered in combination with CD38-targeted mAb therapy, and our clinical development strategy for FT576 involves assessing the unique therapeutic benefit of dual-antigen targeting of BCMA and CD38 expressed on plasma cells.

Bring off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived CAR T cells to patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Autologous CAR T-cell therapies targeting CD19 for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma and targeting BCMA for the treatment of multiple myeloma have emerged as highly effective treatments for patients with relapsed / refractory disease. Despite their potent activity, widespread adoption of CAR T-cell therapy has been relatively modest to date due to complex logistics, high cost, manufacturing capacity constraints, and toxicities that necessitate administration only in large hospitals and treatment centers with intensive care units, as compared to more accessible community hospitals and outpatient infusion centers. According to a survey of academic centers in the U.S. that specialize in administering CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy, only about half of eligible patients receive the treatment, with only 12% of patients able to receive treatment within one month. We believe these limitations provide the opportunity for development of an off-the-shelf CAR T-cell therapy that can be delivered faster, more reliably, at greater scale, and at lower cost with the ability to reach more patients. To that end, we are clinically investigating FT819 which, to our knowledge, is the first-ever off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived CAR T-cell therapy candidate to undergo clinical investigation, in a multi-center Phase 1 study for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed / refractory B-cell malignancies, including B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. FT819 incorporates two novel synthetic controls of cell function: a novel 1XX CAR construct inserted directly into the T-cell receptor alpha constant (TRAC) locus that targets CD19; and the complete disruption of T-cell receptor (TCR) expression for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a potentially life-threatening complication associated with allogeneic T-cell therapy.

We are also conducting preclinical development of multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived, CAR T-cell therapy candidates for the treatment of solid tumors, where the application of autologous CAR T-cell therapy has been significantly hampered by tumor-associated antigen heterogeneity, inefficient CAR T-cell trafficking to the tumor, and immunosuppression inherent to the tumor microenvironment. Our first multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived, CAR T-cell product candidate, FT825, is designed to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-expressing solid tumors. FT825 incorporates seven novel synthetic controls of cell function, including a synthetic CXCR2 receptor to promote cell trafficking and a synthetic TGFβ receptor to redirect immunosuppressive signals in the tumor microenvironment. Under our collaboration with Ono Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Ono), we are currently conducting Investigational New Drug (IND)-enabling activities for FT825, and plan to submit an IND application to the FDA in 2023 to enable the initiation of first-in-human clinical investigation for the treatment of certain solid tumors.

Continue to incorporate novel synthetic controls into our iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapy candidates to expand patient reach and disease application. We believe off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapy has the unique potential to incorporate a multitude of novel synthetic controls that could deliver multiple mechanisms of therapeutic importance to patients, enable safe and effective combination with early line, standard-of-care treatment regimens, and allow for administration in the community setting on an outpatient basis. One of the most significant barriers that limit patient reach and disease application is the requirement for patients receiving CAR T-cell therapy, whether autologous or allogeneic, to endure intense systemic lympho-conditioning, which is often results in severe blood cell deficiencies and related toxicities and can prevent effective combination with early line, standard-of-care treatment regimens. We are exploring the integration of novel synthetic controls which may enable our off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapy candidates to be administered without intense chemotherapy conditioning and as part of standard-of-care immunomodulatory regimens.

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For example, we have incorporated allo-immune defense receptor (ADR) technology licensed from the Baylor College of Medicine into FT522, our iPSC-derived, CD19-targeted CAR NK cell product candidate. This technology is designed to (a) selectively recognize and destroy allo-reactive host immune cells that would otherwise be capable of rejecting the product candidate, (b) maintain other components of the host immune system to preserve hematopoietic function, and (c) activate the product candidate to enhance its potency and persistence. Published preclinical studies have shown that ADR-armed allogeneic cells are protected from both T- and NK-cell mediated rejection (Mo et al. Nature Biotechnology, 39, 56–63 (2021), providing proof-of-concept that ADR-armed allogeneic cells can persist and function in immunocompetent patients.

We are currently conducting IND-enabling activities for FT522, and plan to submit an IND application to the FDA in 2023 to enable the initiation of first-in-human clinical investigation for the treatment of relapsed / refractory B-cell lymphoma in combination with CD20-targeted mAb therapy. In addition to our plans for the clinical investigation of FT522 in relapsed / refractory B-cell lymphoma, we are preclinically assessing the potential to expand our FT522 program beyond oncology into autoimmunity. We believe the novel synthetic controls of FT522, in combination with CD38-targeted mAb therapy, may be uniquely suited to address a broad range of autoimmune diseases and disorders by resetting both of these autoantibody-producing lineages through the dual-targeting of CD19-expressing B cells and CD38-expressing plasma cells, leading to more complete removal of autoantibodies and improved clinical outcomes.

Efficiently develop and commercialize first-in-class, iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapies for severe, life-threatening diseases. We are clinically developing first-in-class, iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapies to improve the lives of patients with severe, life-threatening diseases. We seek to prioritize indications for development where the unmet need is significant and where regulatory agencies offer expedited development and review programs. For example, for patients who have relapsed or are refractory to autologous CD19‑targeted CAR T-cell therapy, the prognosis is dismal and survival is measured in weeks to months. No standard therapies are available for these post-CAR T-cell therapy patients, and recent retrospective analyses of real-world data presented at the 2021 American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting showed extremely poor treatment outcomes with complete response rates of administered therapies ranging from 5% to 25% and overall survival ranging from 5.2 months to 7.5 months. We believe a single-arm study in a relatively small number of patients may serve as a potential registrational pathway for the treatment of these patients.
Selectively share our proprietary iPSC product platform with strategic partners. The research, development and clinical investigation of cell therapies for the treatment of human diseases is rapidly expanding. We believe we are well positioned to form partnerships with third parties seeking to develop iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapies for the treatment of human diseases, including cancer. For example, we are collaborating with Ono to develop and commercialize off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived CAR NK and CAR T-cells for the treatment of certain solid tumors. In addition, since iPSCs have the unique capacity to be genetically engineered, indefinitely expanded and differentiated in culture into any type of cell in the body, we believe there is significant opportunity to broadly exploit our iPSC product platform and intellectual property position in other disease areas beyond cancer. In 2022, we formed Senescea Therapeutics, Inc., a majority-owned subsidiary of the Company, with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to research and develop iPSC-derived cell therapies for the treatment of diseases associated with cell senescence. We will continue to seek partnerships with companies and institutions for the research, development and commercialization of iPSC-derived cell therapies for the treatment of human diseases.

Our Off-the-shelf, Multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived Cellular Immunotherapy Pipeline

NK cells have an innate ability to rapidly seek and destroy abnormal cells, such as cancer or virally-infected cells, and represent one of the body’s first lines of immunological defense. NK cells have the unique ability to selectively identify and destroy abnormal cells through multiple mechanisms while leaving normal healthy cells unharmed. These cytotoxic mechanisms include: direct innate killing by binding to stress ligands expressed by abnormal cells and releasing toxic granules; indirect killing by producing and releasing proinflammatory and chemotactic cytokines that play a pivotal role in orchestrating the adaptive immune response; and antibody-mediated targeted killing by binding to and enhancing the activity of endogenous and therapeutic antibodies through ADCC.

T cells, or T-lymphocytes, play a critical role in adaptive immunity and are distinguished from other cells of the immune system by the presence of a T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. TCRs are generated by DNA rearrangement and positively selected for their capacity to engage host major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The majority of T cells, termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells), rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the TCR, which confers specificity and enables T cells to recognize non-self molecules, known as non-self antigens, expressed on the surface of target cells. Antigens inside a target cell are bound to, and are routinely brought to the surface of a cell, by MHC class I molecules. Upon antigen recognition, T cells bind to the MHC-antigen complex, become activated and destroy the targeted cell. Unlike NK cells, T cells are limited by antigen-specific binding of their TCR in order to induce cellular cytotoxicity.

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We are developing a first-in-class cell therapy pipeline comprised of off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived CAR NK cell and CAR T-cell product candidates that are selectively designed, incorporate novel synthetic controls of cell function, and can deliver multiple mechanisms of therapeutic importance to patients for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease. We have a deep pipeline of product candidates currently under development with multiple clinical trials ongoing, including in combination with mAb therapy to promote multi-antigen recognition, binding, and killing of target cells.

FT576: CAR NK Cell Program for Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a deadly form of blood cancer that is characterized by uncontrolled growth of plasma cells, a type of immune cell that is found mainly in the bone marrow and is responsible for making and secreting antibodies to fight infection. While the underlying cause of multiple myeloma is unknown, abnormal plasma cells can accumulate in the bone marrow, inhibiting the body’s normal production of red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells, and can form tumors in the bone that spread throughout the body.

There are approximately 100,000 patients suffering from multiple myeloma in the United States, with 35,000 new cases and nearly 13,000 deaths from the disease annually according to the American Cancer Society. Multiple myeloma occurs more commonly in men than in women, and predominantly affects the elderly with an average age of onset of approximately 66 years. For patients less than 70 years old with no comorbidities, autologous stem cell therapy is the preferred treatment option. For transplant ineligible patients, the current treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma begins with chemotherapy, proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Several drugs that directly target plasma cells, including CD38-targeted mAb therapy, have also been approved for multiple myeloma and have been incorporated into the current treatment paradigm. In addition, autologous CAR T-cell therapies have shown significant promise in multiple myeloma, and the first autologous CAR T-cell therapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) expressed on plasma cells was approved by the FDA in 2021. The great majority of patients become refractory to these drugs and/or relapse, creating a high unmet need for treatments for relapsed / refractory patients. Multiple myeloma is rarely cured, with the majority of patients dying from the disease.

In August 2019, we entered into a license agreement with the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) under which we were granted certain exclusive rights to intellectual property covering novel humanized CAR constructs that uniquely and specifically bind BCMA. In data published by MDC scientists, anti-BCMA CAR T cells equipped with its unique humanized extracellular antigen-binding domains show higher affinity and greater specificity than other anti-BCMA antigen-binding domains. These differentiated properties conveyed both greater selectivity in recognizing target B cells and more robust killing of target B cells in vitro, including malignant B cells with low expression levels of BCMA. Additionally, in in vivo proof-of-concept studies, MDC scientists demonstrated that anti-BCMA CAR T cells mediated anti-tumor activity in xenotransplant mouse models of multiple myeloma and of mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, where BCMA surface expression is up to 4-fold lower as compared to mouse models of multiple myeloma.

We are clinically developing FT576, an investigational off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived CAR NK cell cancer immunotherapy derived from a clonal master iPSC line. FT576 incorporates four novel synthetic controls of cell function: a proprietary CAR that targets BCMA; a novel high-affinity 158V, non-cleavable CD16 (hnCD16) Fc receptor that has been modified to prevent its down-regulation and to enhance ADCC; an IL-15/IL-15 receptor fusion (IL-15RF), a potent cytokine complex that is intended to augment NK cell activity; and the complete elimination of CD38 expression to promote persistence and function in high oxidative stress environments. In combination with CD38-targeted mAb therapy, these features of FT576 are designed to enable dual-antigen targeting of BCMA and CD38 antigens expressed on plasma cells, extend functional persistence, and mitigate the risk of rejection. In preclinical studies, FT576 demonstrated that the high-avidity binding of the BCMA-targeted CAR construct enabled sustained tumor control against various multiple myeloma cell lines, including in long-term in vivo xenograft mouse models. Additionally, preclinical data published in November 2022 demonstrated that single-dose administration of FT576 controlled tumor growth in vivo, with deeper and more sustained anti-tumor activity observed through multi-dose administration of FT576 as well as in combination with CD38-targeted mAb therapy (Cichocki et al. Nature Communications. 13, 7341, 2022).

We are currently studying FT576 in an ongoing, multi-center Phase 1 clinical trial designed to assess its safety and clinical activity in adult patients with relapsed / refractory multiple myeloma, and to determine the recommended Phase 2 dose and schedule, as monotherapy (Regimen A) and in combination with CD38-targeted mAb therapy to simultaneously target BCMA and CD38 antigens (Regimen B). At the 2022 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, we presented interim clinical data as of an October 7, 2022 data cutoff date for nine patients treated with a single dose of FT576, including six patients in Regimen A and three patients in Regimen B. Patients had received standard conditioning chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide (Cy) at 300 mg/m2 and fludarabine (Flu) at 30 mg/m2 for three days prior to the initiation of each regimen. Patients were heavily pre-treated having had received a median of five prior lines of therapy (range 3-10), including six patients (67%) that were refractory to last therapy.

Safety Data. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and no events of any grade of cytokine release syndrome (CRS), immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), or GvHD, were observed. Both regimens were well tolerated.

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Two patients (22%) experienced Grade 3 or greater FT576-related adverse events (AEs), with one patient having Grade 3 diarrhea and one patient having two episodes of Grades 3 through 4 neutropenia and three episodes of Grade 3 anemia, all of which resolved. There were no serious AEs related to FT576. There were no study discontinuations or deaths due to treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs).
Regimen A Activity. Six patients were treated with a single dose of FT576 as monotherapy in the first dose cohort at 100 million cells (n=3) and the second dose cohort at 300 million cells (n=3). In the second dose cohort, one patient, who had received five prior lines of therapy, was triple-refractory to an immunomodulatory drug, a proteasome inhibitor, and anti-CD38 mAb therapy, and was refractory to last therapy (pomalidomide, daratumumab and dexamethasone), achieved a very good partial response with the other two patients showing stable disease. Further evidence of FT576 activity was observed in the second dose cohort, with two patients for whom serum BCMA levels were evaluable showing a substantial treatment-induced decrease in soluble BCMA.
Regimen B Activity. Three patients were treated with a single dose of FT576 in combination with a CD38-targeted mAb therapy in the first dose cohort at 100 million cells, with one patient achieving a partial response (PR) and one patient achieving a minor response (MR). All three patients showed a substantial treatment-induced decrease in soluble BCMA.

We have initiated enrollment of two-dose escalation cohorts at 300 million cells per dose in both regimens, and we plan to initiate enrollment of three-dose escalation cohorts at 300 million cells per dose in both regimens and continue dose escalation.

FT522: CAR NK Cell Program for B-cell Lymphoma and Autoimmune Disorders

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of blood cancer that originates in the body’s lymphatic system. In NHL, white blood cells, called lymphocytes, grow abnormally and can form tumors throughout the body. The most common subtype of NHL is B-cell lymphoma, which represents over 85% of all newly-diagnosed NHL cases per year. B-cell lymphoma can be rapidly growing, or aggressive, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, or it can be slow growing, or indolent, such as follicular lymphoma.

There are over 80,000 new cases of NHL diagnosed per year in the United States, with over 20,000 deaths from the disease annually, according to the American Cancer Society. Patients with newly-diagnosed B-cell lymphoma are generally treated with chemotherapy plus a CD20-targeted mAb, with the R-CHOP chemotherapy combination (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) established as standard of care for newly-diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. While the frontline approach of chemotherapy plus a CD20-targeted mAb is highly effective for many NHL patients, most patients suffer from disease that is refractory to initial treatment or recurrent after an initial response. Each year there are over 20,000 patients that require second-line treatment and nearly 10,000 patients that require third-line or later lines of therapy. For patients with refractory or relapsed disease, prognosis worsens with each subsequent line of therapy.

Autologous CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy has been highly successful in treating patients with relapsed / refractory B-cell lymphoma. While the autologous approach has demonstrated compelling efficacy in many patients, several key challenges limit its adoption and reach including the need to co-administer intense chemotherapy conditioning, to hospitalize patients for treatment and monitoring, and to deliver bridging therapy during product manufacture. In registrational trials of CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy, up to 31% of patients on an intent-to-treat basis did not receive therapy primarily due to interval complications from the underlying disease prior to delivery of therapy or failure to manufacture therapy. Additionally, patients with relapsed / refractory disease can have a T-cell compartment that is damaged or weakened, which may impair product manufacture, viability, potency, and/or response. The manufacture and delivery of autologous CAR T-cell therapy is logistically complex and costly and, as a result, its availability is limited to select specialized centers.

We are preclinically developing FT522, an off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived CAR NK cell cancer immunotherapy derived from a clonal master iPSC line. FT522 incorporates five novel synthetic controls of cell function: a proprietary CAR that targets CD19; a novel high-affinity 158V, non-cleavable CD16 (hnCD16) Fc receptor that has been modified to prevent its down-regulation and to enhance ADCC; an IL-15/IL-15 receptor fusion (IL-15RF), a potent cytokine complex that is intended to augment NK cell activity; the complete elimination of CD38 expression to promote persistence and function in high oxidative stress environments; and a novel alloimmune defense receptor (ADR) that targets the cell surface receptor 4-1BB (CD137), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is upregulated on activated CD4+, CD8+, and regulatory T cells as well as activated NK cells of the host immune system. In combination with CD20-targeted mAb therapy, these features of FT522 are designed to enable dual-antigen targeting of CD19 and CD20 antigens expressed on B cells, extend functional persistence, and mitigate the risk of rejection.

We are currently conducting IND-enabling activities for FT522, and plan to submit an IND application to the FDA in 2023 to enable the initiation of first-in-human clinical investigation for the treatment of relapsed / refractory B-cell lymphoma. Preclinical proof-of-concept data for FT522 presented at the 2022 ASH Annual Meeting showed that, in an in vitro co-culture assay with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (allo PBMCs), ADR-armed, CD19-targeted, iPSC-derived CAR NK cells expanded, persisted, and selectively eliminated 4-1BB+ allo PBMCs in contrast to ADR-null, CD19-targeted, iPSC-derived CAR NK cells,

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which were depleted. In addition, in a disseminated Nalm6 leukemia model comprised of allo-reactive T cells and tumor cells resistant to T-cell killing (MHC class 1-null), ADR-armed, CD19-targeted, iPSC-derived CAR NK cells exhibited uncompromised effector function in vivo compared to ADR-null, CD19-targeted, iPSC-derived CAR NK cells, suggesting that ADR-armed NK cells functionally persist, proliferate, and durably kill tumor cells while resisting rejection by allo-reactive T cells.

In addition to our plans for the clinical investigation of FT522 in relapsed / refractory B-cell lymphoma, we are assessing in preclinical studies the potential to expand our FT522 program beyond oncology into autoimmunity. Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own organs and tissues. The role of B cells in autoimmune diseases involves different cellular functions, including autoantigen presentation, autoreactive T-cell activation, and autoantibody production. Therapeutic strategies designed to deplete B cells, including treatment with CD20-targeted mAb therapy, have been shown effective for induction and maintenance of remission in patients with certain autoimmune diseases. In addition, autologous CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy has been shown to induce durable remissions in patients with severe, refractory systemic lupus erythematosus. Aberrant production of autoantibodies by long-lived plasma cells is also an inherent characteristic of autoimmune diseases. Notably, recent findings suggest that long-lived plasma cells often accumulate later in the course of disease and are refractory to immunosuppressants and B-cell depletion therapies, leading to the persistent secretion of autoantibodies despite B-cell targeted intervention strategies. We believe the novel synthetic controls of FT522, in combination with CD38-targeted mAb therapy, may be uniquely suited to address a broad range of autoimmune diseases and disorders by resetting both of these autoantibody-producing lineages through the dual-targeting of CD19-and CD20- expressing B cells and CD38-expressing plasma cells, leading to more complete removal of autoantibodies and improved clinical outcomes.

FT819: CAR T-cell Program for B-cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In addition to our development of iPSC-derived CAR NK cell product candidates, we are also developing CAR T-cell product candidates derived from clonal master iPSC lines as off-the-shelf cancer immunotherapies for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. In support of our development of iPSC-derived CAR T-cell product candidates, we are conducting a multi-year research partnership with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) that is being led by Dr. Michel Sadelain, Director of the Center for Cell Engineering and the Stephen and Barbara Friedman Chair at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, we have exclusively licensed from MSKCC foundational intellectual property covering iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapy, including T cells and NK cells derived from iPSCs engineered with CARs, for human therapeutic use. We have also licensed from MSKCC intellectual property covering compositions of novel CAR constructs, including the use of a novel 1XX co-stimulatory domain, and of genetically engineered CAR T cells, including methods of making these cells using CRISPR for certain targeted gene modifications. Embodiments of this additional intellectual property include preclinical data published by Dr. Sadelain demonstrating that directing a CD19-specific CAR to the TRAC locus resulted in uniform CAR expression in human peripheral blood T cells, enhanced T-cell potency, and delayed effector T-cell differentiation and exhaustion (Eyquem et al. Nature. 543, 113–117, 2017), and that CAR T cells utilizing a novel 1XX CAR signaling domain exhibited enhanced antitumor activity, persistence and long-term cytotoxicity as well as a decrease in T-cell exhaustion (Feucht et al. Nature Medicine. 25, 82–88, 2019).

We are clinically developing FT819, an investigational off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived CAR T cell cancer immunotherapy derived from a clonal master iPSC line. FT819 incorporates two novel synthetic controls of cell function: a novel 1XX CAR construct inserted directly into the TRAC locus that targets CD19; and the complete disruption of TCR expression for the prevention of GvHD, a potentially life-threatening complication associated with allogeneic T-cell therapy. Together, these features of FT819 are designed to induce antigen-specific cytotoxicity, enhance CAR activity through TRAC-regulated expression, and completely eliminate TCR expression to mitigate GvHD. In preclinical studies, we have shown that iPSC-derived TCR-CAR+ CAR T cells targeting CD19:

displayed antigen-specific anti-tumor potency in vitro, including cytokine release and targeted cellular cytotoxicity, comparable to peripheral blood CD19-specific CAR T-cells;
did not respond or proliferate against HLA-mismatched (CD19-) peripheral blood mononuclear cells as targets in a mixed lymphocyte reaction, indicating the risk of GvHD is alleviated;
controlled tumor progression in vivo comparable to peripheral blood CD19-specific CAR T cells in a preclinical mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia; and
enhanced tumor clearance and durable control of leukemia in vivo, as compared to primary CAR19 T cells, in a xenograft mouse model of disseminated lymphoblastic leukemia.

Additional preclinical data published in August 2022 showed the generation of iPSC-derived TCR-CAR+ CD8αβ T cells, which were able to repeatedly lyse tumor cells in vitro and durably control leukemia in vivo, with persistence in the bone marrow, spleen, and blood, in a systemic NALM6 leukemia model (Sjoukje et al. Nature Biomedical Engineering. 6, 1284–1297, 2022).

We are currently studying FT819 in an ongoing, multi-center Phase 1 clinical trial designed to assess its safety and clinical activity in adult patients with relapsed / refractory B-cell malignancies, including B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic

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leukemia, and to determine the recommended Phase 2 dose and schedule, in three treatment regimens: single dose of FT819 (Regimen A); single dose of FT819 with IL-2 cytokine support (Regimen A1); and three fractionated doses of FT819 on Days 1, 3, and 5 (Regimen B). At the 2022 ASH Annual Meeting, we presented interim clinical data as of a September 8, 2022 data cutoff date for 10 patients with aggressive large B-cell lymphoma treated with FT819, including eight patients in Regimen A and two patients in Regimen B (see Table 1). Patients had received standard conditioning chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide (Cy) at 500 mg/m2 and fludarabine (Flu) at 30 mg/m2 for three days prior to the initiation of each regimen. Patients were heavily pre-treated having had received a median of four prior lines of therapy (range 3-7), including 7 of 10 patients (70%) having previously received autologous CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy.

Regimen A Activity. Of the eight patients with aggressive large B-cell lymphoma (median of 4.5 prior lines of therapy [range 3-7]) treated with a single dose of FT819 ranging from 90 million cells to 360 million cells, one of two patients naïve to CAR T-cell therapy achieved an objective response at Day 30, which was a complete response in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma previously treated with five prior lines of therapy; and two of six patients previously treated with CAR T-cell therapy achieved an objective response at Day 30, which included a complete response in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma previously treated with seven prior lines of therapy who did not respond to autologous CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy.
Regimen B Activity. Two patients with aggressive large B-cell lymphoma (each of whom received three prior lines of therapy) treated with three fractionated doses at 30 million cells per dose did not respond to therapy at Day 30.

 

Table 1: Aggressive Large B-cell Lymphoma 1,2,3

FT819 Regimen A: Single Dose (n=8)

 

CAR T-cell Therapy Naïve

Prior CAR T-cell Therapy

Cells

90M

180M

360M

90M

180M

360M

   N

1

n/a

1

4

1

1

   OR / CR

0 / 0

n/a

1 / 1

2 / 1

0 / 0

0 / 0

FT819 Regimen B: Three Fractionated Doses (n=2)

 

CAR T-cell Therapy Naïve

Prior CAR T-cell Therapy

Cells / Dose

30M

30M

   N

1

1

   OR / CR

0 / 0

0 / 0

OR = objective response; CR= complete response; M = million

1 As of data cutoff date of September 8, 2022

2 Includes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=8) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma (n=2)

3 Day 30 protocol-defined response assessment per Lugano 2014 criteria

Five additional patients with relapsed / refractory B-cell lymphoma had been treated with FT819 as of the September 8, 2022 data cutoff date: one patient with Grade 3a follicular lymphoma (with 5 prior lines of therapy, including CAR T-cell therapy) treated in Regimen A with a single dose of FT819 at 180 million cells achieved a complete response at Day 30; and four patients with Richter’s Transformation (median of 5.5 prior lines of therapy [range 2-9]) did not respond to therapy at Day 30.

No DLTs, and no Grade 3 or greater FT819-related AEs or serious AEs, were observed. Of the 15 patients treated in Regimens A and B, three patients (20%) experienced Grade 2 CRS characterized by fever, hypotension, and hypoxia, and which resolved with single-dose tocilizumab and supportive care. No TEAEs of any grade of ICANS or GvHD were reported by investigators. The FT819 treatment regimen was well tolerated. There were no study discontinuations or deaths due to TEAEs other than one patient with stable disease who died on Day 38 due to sepsis not considered related to FT819 by the study investigator.

Dose escalation is currently ongoing in Regimen A as a single dose of FT819 at 360 million cells and in Regimen B with three fractionated doses at 60 million cells per dose. The Company has also amended the FT819 study protocol to allow for the use of bendamustine at 90 mg/m2 for two days as an alternative to Cy / Flu conditioning chemotherapy.

FT825: CAR T-cell Program for Solid Tumors

Although autologous CAR T-cell therapies approved by the FDA have shown significant efficacy in treating hematologic malignancies, its wider application to solid tumors has been hampered by tumor-associated antigen heterogeneity, inefficient CAR T-cell trafficking to the tumor, and immunosuppression inherent to the tumor microenvironment. We are researching and preclinically developing multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived CAR T-cell product candidates, which are specifically designed to address these challenges and enable the safe and effective treatment of solid tumors as monotherapy and in combination with mAb therapy.

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We are preclinically developing FT825, a multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived, CAR T-cell product candidate targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-expressing solid tumors, under our collaboration with Ono (see "Our Partnership with Ono Pharmaceutical"). HER2, also known as Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2, is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed on many solid tumors, such as breast, gastric, bladder, and lung cancers. FT825 incorporates seven novel synthetic controls of cell function: a novel 1XX CAR construct inserted directly into the TRAC locus that is armed with a differentiated HER2 binding domain; a novel high-affinity 158V, non-cleavable CD16 (hnCD16) Fc receptor that has been modified to prevent its down-regulation and to enhance ADCC and to overcome challenges associated with tumor heterogeneity; a synthetic IL-7/IL-7 receptor fusion (IL-7RF), a potent cytokine complex that is intended to promote T-cell stemness; a synthetic CXCR2 receptor to promote cell trafficking; a synthetic TGFβ receptor to redirect immunosuppressive signals in the tumor microenvironment; the complete elimination of CD38 expression to promote persistence and function in high oxidative stress environments; and the complete disruption of TCR expression for the prevention of GvHD, a potentially life-threatening complication associated with allogeneic T-cell therapy.

In preclinical studies of FT825 presented at the 2022 Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Annual Meeting, the product candidate’s HER2 binding domain showed a highly selective and differentiated targeting profile including in comparison to other HER2-directed agents, exhibited robust dose-dependent cytolytic activity against both HER2-high and HER2-low cell lines from multiple tumor types, demonstrated limited activity against HER2-expressing cell lines from healthy tissue, and exhibited enhanced trafficking and migration properties in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its CAR-mediated anti-tumor activity against HER2, co-activation of the product candidate’s HER2-targeted CAR and hnCD16 Fc receptor through combination with mAb therapy showed enhanced anti-tumor activity in preclinical models.

Under our collaboration with Ono, we are currently conducting IND-enabling activities for FT825, and plan to submit an IND application to the FDA in 2023 to enable the initiation of first-in-human clinical investigation for the treatment of certain solid tumors.

Discontinued Product Candidates

Janssen Collaboration. On January 3, 2023, we received notice of termination from Janssen Biotech, Inc. (Janssen) of our collaboration and option agreement dated April 2, 2020 by and between the parties (the Janssen Agreement), pursuant to which the companies had agreed to collaborate to develop iPSC-derived CAR NK- and CAR T-cell product candidates for the treatment of cancer. During 2022, Janssen exercised a commercial option for two collaboration candidates: an iPSC-derived, CAR-targeted NK cell product candidate for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma, for which the FDA allowed an IND application in December 2022; and an iPSC-derived, CAR-targeted NK cell product candidate for the treatment of multiple myeloma, for which the companies were preparing to submit an IND application to the FDA in early 2023. In addition, the companies were researching and preclinically developing two iPSC-derived, CAR-targeted T-cell programs for the treatment of solid tumors. The termination will be finalized on April 3, 2023 and, during the first quarter of 2023, we will wind down our activities with Janssen, including discontinuing development of all collaboration products. Under the terms of the Janssen Agreement, in connection with the termination, (i) all licenses and other rights granted to either party pursuant to the Janssen Agreement will terminate, subject to limited exceptions set forth in the Janssen Agreement; (ii) both parties will wind down any development, commercialization and manufacturing activities under the Janssen Agreement; (iii) neither party will have any right to continue to develop, manufacture or commercialize any collaboration candidate or collaboration product or use the other party’s materials; and (iv) neither party is restricted from independently developing, manufacturing, or commercializing any product, including any products directed to the same antigens as those of any collaboration candidate or collaboration product.

Internal Programs. On January 5, 2023, we announced the completion of a strategic review of our NK cell programs and our election to focus on advancing our most innovative and differentiated product candidates, which have a multiplexed-engineered cellular framework of novel synthetic controls designed to promote multi-antigen targeting, increase potency, extend functional persistence, and enable patient dosing with reduced conditioning chemotherapy. As a result of our NK cell program prioritization, our FT516, FT596, FT538, and FT536 NK cell programs are being discontinued.

Workforce Reduction. As a result of the termination of the Janssen collaboration and the NK cell program prioritization, during the first quarter of 2023 we are reducing our workforce to approximately 220 employees. We expect that we will incur charges of approximately $12 million to $16 million for severance and other employee termination-related costs in the first quarter of 2023. The restructuring is expected to extend our cash runway into the second half of 2025.

Our Partnership with Ono Pharmaceutical

Under a collaboration and option agreement with Ono Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Ono) entered into in September 2018 and amended in June 2022 (the Ono Agreement), we are conducting research and preclinical development of off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived, CAR-targeted effector cells for the treatment of solid tumors. In November 2022, we announced that Ono had exercised its preclinical option to FT825/ONO-8250, a multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived CAR T-cell product candidate targeting HER2-expressing solid

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tumors (also referred to as Candidate 2 below), and that we exercised our preclinical option to co-develop and co-commercialize FT825/ONO-8250 in the United States and Europe under a joint arrangement with Ono. As a result, we are owed an option exercise fee of $12.5 million from Ono. The companies are currently conducting IND-enabling activities for FT825/ONO-8250, and plan to submit an IND application to the FDA in 2023 to enable the initiation of a first-in-human clinical investigation. The companies are also currently conducting preclinical development of a second off-the-shelf, iPSC-derived, CAR-targeted effector cell product candidate for the treatment of solid tumors (referred to as Candidate 3 below) under the Ono Agreement.

Under the Ono Agreement entered into in September 2018, we and Ono intended to research and preclinically develop two iPSC-derived CAR T-cell product candidates, one of which was designated to target an antigen expressed on certain lymphoblastic leukemias (Candidate 1) and the second of which was designated to target an antigen expressed on certain solid tumors (Candidate 2) (each a Candidate and, collectively, the Candidates). We granted to Ono, during a specified period of time, a preclinical option to obtain an exclusive license under certain intellectual property rights to develop and commercialize: (a) Candidate 1 in Asia, where we retained rights for development and commercialization in all other territories of the world; and (b) Candidate 2 in all territories of the world, where we retained rights to co-develop and co-commercialize Candidate 2 in the United States and Europe under a joint arrangement with Ono under which we are eligible to share at least 50% of the profits and losses. We maintained worldwide rights of manufacture for each Candidate. For each Candidate, the preclinical option expired upon the earliest of: (a) the achievement of the pre-defined preclinical milestone under the joint development plan; (b) termination by Ono of research and development activities for the Candidate; and (c) the date that is the later of (i) four years after the effective date, and (ii) completion of all applicable activities contemplated under the joint development plan. Ono paid us an upfront, non-refundable and non-creditable payment of $10.0 million in connection with entering into the Ono Agreement. Additionally, as consideration for our conduct of research and preclinical development under a joint development plan, Ono agreed to pay us annual research and development fees set forth in the annual budget included in the joint development plan, which fees were estimated to be $20.0 million in aggregate over the course of the joint development plan.

In December 2020, we entered into a letter agreement with Ono pursuant to which Ono delivered to us proprietary antigen binding domains targeting an antigen expressed on certain solid tumors for incorporation into Candidate 2 and paid us a milestone fee of $10.0 million for further research and development of Candidate 2. In addition, Ono terminated all further research and development with respect to Candidate 1, and we retained all rights to research, develop and commercialize Candidate 1 throughout the world without any obligation to Ono.

In June 2022, we entered into an amendment with Ono to the Ono Agreement (the Ono Amendment). Pursuant to the Ono Amendment, the companies agreed to designate an additional antigen expressed on certain solid tumors for research and preclinical development, and Ono agreed to contribute to us proprietary antigen binding domains targeting such additional solid tumor antigen (Candidate 3). In addition, for both Candidate 2 and Candidate 3, the companies expanded the scope of the collaboration to include the research and development of iPSC-derived CAR NK cell product candidates (in addition to iPSC-derived CAR T-cell product candidates) targeting the designated solid tumor antigens. Similar to Candidate 2, we granted to Ono, during a specified period of time, a preclinical option to obtain an exclusive license under certain intellectual property rights, subject to payment of an option exercise fee to us by Ono, to develop and commercialize Candidate 3 in all territories of the world, where we retained rights to co-develop and co-commercialize Candidate 3 in the United States and Europe under a joint arrangement with Ono under which we are eligible to share at least 50% of the profits and losses. We maintained worldwide rights of manufacture for Candidate 3. The preclinical option expires upon the earlier of: (a) September 30, 2024, or (b) the achievement of the pre-defined preclinical milestone under the joint development plan for Candidate 3. Subject to payment to us of an extension fee by Ono, Ono may choose to defer its decision to exercise the preclinical option until no later than June 2026. Ono agreed to pay us annual research and development fees set forth in the annual budget included in the joint development plan for Candidate 3.

Under the terms of the Ono Agreement, for Candidate 2 and for Candidate 3 (subject to exercise by Ono of its preclinical option to Candidate 3), we are eligible to receive additional payments upon the achievement of certain clinical, regulatory and commercial milestones (the Ono Milestones) with respect to each Candidate in an amount up to $843.0 million in aggregate, with the applicable milestone payments for the United States and Europe subject to reduction by 50% if we elect to co-develop and co-commercialize the Candidate in the United States and Europe as described above. In addition, in those territories where Ono has exclusive rights of commercialization, we are eligible to receive tiered royalties (Royalties) ranging from the mid-single digits to the low-double digits based on annual net sales by Ono for each Candidate in such territories, with such royalties subject to certain reductions.

The Ono Agreement will terminate with respect to a Candidate if Ono does not exercise its option for a Candidate within the option period, or in its entirety if Ono does not exercise any of its options for the Candidates within their respective option periods. In addition, either party may terminate the Ono Agreement in the event of breach, insolvency or patent challenges by the other party; provided, that Ono may terminate the Ono Agreement in its sole discretion (x) on a Candidate-by-Candidate basis at any time after the second anniversary of the effective date of the Ono Agreement or (y) on a Candidate-by-Candidate or country-by-country basis at any time after the expiration of the option period, subject to certain limitations. The Ono Agreement will expire on a Candidate-by-Candidate and country-by-country basis upon the expiration of the applicable royalty term, or in its entirety upon the expiration of all applicable payment obligations under the agreement.

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Our Intellectual Property

Overview

We seek to protect our product candidates and our cell programming technology through a variety of methods, including seeking and maintaining patents intended to cover our products and compositions, their methods of use and processes for their manufacture, our platform technologies and any other inventions that are commercially important to the development of our business. We seek to obtain domestic and international patent protection and, in addition to filing and prosecuting patent applications in the United States, we typically file counterpart patent applications in additional countries where we believe such foreign filing is likely to be beneficial, including Europe, Japan, Canada, Australia and China. We continually assess and refine our intellectual property strategy in order to best fortify our position, and file additional patent applications when our intellectual property strategy warrants such filings. We also rely on know-how, continuing technological innovation and in-licensing opportunities to develop and maintain our proprietary position. We have entered into exclusive license agreements with various academic and research institutions to obtain the rights to use certain patents for the development and commercialization of our product candidates.

As of February 18, 2023, our intellectual property portfolio is composed of over 450 issued patents and 150 patent applications that we license from academic and research institutions, and over 400 issued patents or pending patent applications that we own. These patents and patent applications generally provide us with the rights to develop our product candidates in the United States and worldwide. This portfolio covers compositions of programmed cellular immunotherapies, our cell programming approach for enhancing the therapeutic function of cells ex vivo, and our platform for industrial-scale iPSC generation and engineering. We believe that we have a significant intellectual property position and substantial know-how relating to the programming of hematopoietic and immune cells and to the derivation, genetic engineering, and differentiation of iPSCs.

We cannot be sure that patents will be granted with respect to any of our owned or licensed pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications we may own or license in the future, nor can we be sure that any of our existing patents or any patents we may own or license in the future will be useful in protecting our technology. Please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property” for additional information on the risks associated with our intellectual property strategy and portfolio.

Intellectual Property Relating to iPSC Technology and Platform

As of February 18, 2023, we own over 25 patent families directed to programming the fate of somatic cells ex vivo, including patent applications pending in the U.S. and internationally related to our platform for industrial-scale iPSC generation and applications related to differentiation of iPSCs into specialized cells with therapeutic potential. These patent applications cover our proprietary small molecule-enhanced iPSC platform, including novel reprogramming factors and methods of reprogramming to obtain iPSCs. Our intellectual property portfolio also includes gene editing compositions and methods of genetic engineering, as well as methods of directing the fate of cells to obtain homogenous cell populations in the hematopoietic lineage, including CD34+ cells, T cells and NK cells. Our proprietary intellectual property enables highly-efficient iPSC derivation, selection, engineering, and clonal expansion while maintaining genomic stability. Any U.S. patents issued from these patent applications are expected to have statutory expiration dates ranging from 2031 to 2043.

Additionally, we have licensed from the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research a portfolio of four patent families including issued patents and pending applications broadly applicable to the reprogramming of somatic cells. Our license is exclusive in commercial fields, including for drug discovery and therapeutic purposes. This portfolio covers the generation of human iPSCs from somatic cells and, as of February 18, 2023, includes 17 issued U.S. patents (including U.S. Patents 8,071,369, 7,682,828 and 9,497,943) claiming compositions used in the reprogramming of mammalian somatic cells to a less differentiated state (including to a pluripotent state), and methods of making a cell more susceptible to reprogramming. Specifically, the portfolio includes a composition of matter patent issued in the United States covering a cellular composition comprising a somatic cell having an exogenous nucleic acid that encodes an OCT4 protein. OCT4 is the key pluripotency gene most commonly required for the generation of iPSCs. These issued patents and any U.S. patents that may issue from these pending patent applications are expected to have statutory expiration dates ranging from 2024 to 2029.

We also have exclusive licenses from The Scripps Research Institute to a portfolio of seven patent families relating to compositions and methods for reprogramming mammalian somatic cells, which covers non-genetic and viral-free reprogramming mechanisms, including the use of various small molecule classes and compounds and the introduction of cell-penetrating proteins to reprogram mammalian somatic cells. This portfolio includes issued U.S. patents (including U.S. Patents 8,044,201 and 8,691,573) that provide composition of matter protection for a class of small molecules, including thiazovivin, that is critical for inducing the generation, and maintaining the pluripotency, of iPSCs, and compositions and methods of using the small molecule. Any issued U.S. patents and any U.S. patents that may issue from patent applications pending in this portfolio are expected to have statutory expiration dates ranging from 2026 to 2031.

We also have exclusively licensed from the J. David Gladstone Institutes (Gladstone) intellectual property covering the generation of iPSCs using CRISPR-mediated gene activation. This approach for inducing pluripotency uses CRISPR to directly target

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a specific location of the genome and activate endogenous gene expression, and does not rely on established methods of cellular reprogramming that require the transduction of multiple transcription factors. Any U.S. patents that may issue from patent applications pending in the U.S. and internationally in this portfolio are expected to have a statutory expiration date in 2038.

We also have licensed exclusive rights to five families of patent applications from the University of Minnesota. As of February 18, 2023 this portfolio includes over 70 issued patents or pending patent applications in the United States and foreign jurisdictions directed to compositions of NK cells, including adaptive memory NK cells and genetically-engineered NK cells, and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer using these NK cells. These applications also describe methods of enhancing NK cell cytotoxicity by genetically engineering the CD16 Fc receptor in immune cells, including iPSC-derived NK cells, and describe methods of increasing NK cell tumor specificity and cytotoxicity by incorporating CARs on NK cells. Any U.S. patents that may issue from patent applications pending in this portfolio are expected to have statutory expiration dates between 2035 and 2038.

We also have exclusively licensed from The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) intellectual property covering the production and composition of iPSC-derived T cells and their use in cellular immunotherapy, and have a license from MSK to two patent families covering novel CAR constructs as well as off-the-shelf CAR T cells, including the use of CRISPR and other innovative technologies for their production. Collectively, this portfolio covers compositions of CAR constructs, compositions of T cells and NK cells derived from pluripotent cells which are engineered with CARs, methods of engineering pluripotent cell lines, methods of deriving CAR-T cells from CAR expressing pluripotent stem cells, and methods of using CRISPR for producing off-the-shelf T-cell immunotherapies. Any U.S. patents that may issue from patent applications pending in this portfolio are expected to have statutory expiration dates between 2034 and 2038.

In addition, we have licensed exclusive rights from the Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) to intellectual property directed to novel humanized antibody fragments, antigen-binding domains and CAR constructs that uniquely target and specifically bind B-cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA). Under the license agreement, we are granted an exclusive license for use in allogeneic engineered pluripotent stem cells. Any patents issuing from patent applications pending in the U.S. and internationally in this portfolio are expected to have statutory expiration dates between 2033 and 2037.

We have also licensed exclusive rights from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute to certain intellectual property covering novel antibody fragments that uniquely and specifically bind the alpha-3 domain of MICA/B. We are granted exclusive worldwide rights for use in iPSC-derived cellular therapeutics for the treatment of human disease under the license agreement. Any patents that may issue from patent applications pending in this portfolio are expected to have statutory expiration dates in 2038.

Intellectual Property Relating to CRISPR Engineering

In August 2019, we entered into a license agreement with Inscripta, Inc. Under the license agreement, we obtained a royalty-free, irrevocable license to a patent portfolio covering the composition, production and use of MAD7, a novel gene-editing CRISPR endonuclease from the Eubacterium rectale genome. The intellectual property includes issued patents and pending applications broadly applicable to MAD7 and the editing of mammalian cells. Our license covers the making and using of MAD7 for editing iPSCs, making master engineered iPSC lines and using master engineered iPSC lines to manufacture human therapeutic products. We expect U.S. patents related to this work to have statutory expiration dates starting in 2037.

Intellectual Property Relating to the Programming of Hematopoietic Cells

As of February 18, 2023, we own 18 families of U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications covering our cell programming technology and compositions of programmed cellular immunotherapies. This portfolio includes over 150 issued patents or pending patent applications relating to methods of programming the biological properties and therapeutic function of cells ex vivo, and the resulting therapeutic compositions of hematopoietic and immune cells. Patents and patent applications in this portfolio include claims covering (i) therapeutic compositions of hematopoietic and immune cells, including T cells, NK cells, and CD34+ cells, that have been programmed ex vivo with one or more agents to optimize their therapeutic function for application in oncology and immune disorders and (ii) methods of programming cells including by the activation or inhibition of therapeutically-relevant genes and cell-surface proteins, such as those involved in the homing, proliferation and survival of hematopoietic cells or those involved in the persistence, proliferation and reactivity of immune cells. Any U.S. patents within this portfolio that have issued or may yet issue from pending patent applications will have statutory expiration dates between 2030 and 2043.

Our Material Technology License Agreements

The University of Minnesota

In December 2016, we entered into a license agreement with the Regents of the University of Minnesota for rights relating to compositions and methods relating to NK cells, to modifications of cytotoxic receptors naturally expressed on NK cells including the CD16 Fc receptor, and to CARs for expression on NK cells. Under our agreement with the University of Minnesota, we acquired an

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exclusive royalty-bearing, sublicensable, worldwide license to make, use and sell licensed products in all fields for commercial purposes. The licensed patent rights are described in more detail above under “Intellectual Property Relating to the Programming of Hematopoietic Cells.” The University of Minnesota retains the right to practice the patent rights for research, teaching and educational purposes, including in corporate-sponsored research subject to certain limitations during the initial three years of the license agreement. The University of Minnesota also retains the right to license other academic and non-profit research institutes to practice the patent rights for research, teaching and educational purposes, but not for corporate-sponsored research. Our license is also subject to pre-existing rights of the U.S. government.

Under the terms of the license agreement, we are required to pay the University of Minnesota an annual license maintenance fee during the term of the agreement, and are also required to make payments of up to $4.6 million for development, regulatory and commercial milestones achieved with respect to each of the first three licensed products. If commercial sales of a licensed product commence, we will also be required to pay royalties at percentage rates in the low-single digits on net sales of licensed products. Our royalty payments are subject to reduction for any third-party payments required to be made until a minimum royalty percentage has been reached. In the event that we sublicense the patent rights, the University of Minnesota is also entitled to receive a percentage of the sublicensing income received by us.

Under the license agreement with the University of Minnesota, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and make commercially available licensed products. In particular, we are required to conduct activities toward specific development milestones of licensed products on an annual basis.

The agreement will continue until the abandonment of all patent rights or expiration of the last to expire licensed patent. The University of Minnesota may terminate the agreement if we default in the performance of any of our obligations and fail to cure the default within a specified grace period. The University of Minnesota may also terminate the agreement if we cease to carry out our business or become bankrupt or insolvent. We may terminate the agreement for any reason upon prior written notice to the University of Minnesota and payment of all amounts due to the University of Minnesota through the date of termination.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

In May 2018, we entered into an amended and restated license agreement with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The agreement amends and restates the exclusive license agreement we entered into with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in August 2016, under which we obtained rights relating to compositions and methods covering iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapy, including T cells and NK cells derived from iPSCs engineered with CARs. Pursuant to the amended and restated license agreement, we continue to hold exclusive rights to the foregoing patents and patent applications, and obtained additional licenses to certain patents and patent applications relating to compositions and methods covering novel CAR constructs as well as off-the-shelf CAR T cells, including the use of CRISPR and other innovative technologies for their production.

Under our amended and restated agreement with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we have royalty-bearing worldwide licenses to make, use and sell licensed products in all fields for human therapeutic uses. The licensed patent rights are described in more detail above under “Intellectual Property Relating to iPSC Technology.” For those patent families where our rights are exclusive, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center retains the right to practice the patent rights for research, teaching and non-clinical research purposes, and to license other academic and non-profit research institutes to practice the patent rights for research, teaching and non-clinical research purposes. Our licenses are also subject to pre-existing rights of the U.S. government.

Under the terms of the amended and restated agreement, we are required to pay Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center an annual license maintenance fee during the term of the agreement, and are also required to make payments of up to $12.5 million for development, regulatory and commercial milestones achieved with respect to each licensed products. If commercial sales of a licensed product commence, we will also be required to pay royalties at percentage rates up to the high-single digits on net sales of licensed products. Our royalty payments are subject to reduction for any third-party payments required to be made until a minimum royalty percentage has been reached. In the event that we sublicense the patent rights, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is also entitled to receive a percentage of the sublicensing income received by us. Additionally, in the event a licensed product achieves a specified clinical milestone, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is then eligible to receive additional milestone payments, where the amount of such payments owed to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center are contingent upon certain increases in the price of our common stock following the date of achievement of such clinical milestone.

Under the amended and restated agreement with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and make commercially available licensed products. In particular, we are required to conduct activities and commit a minimum amount of funding toward specific development milestones of licensed products on an annual basis.

The agreement will continue until the abandonment of all patent rights or expiration of the last to expire licensed patent. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center may terminate the agreement if we default in the performance of any of our obligations and fail to cure the default within a specified grace period, if we cease to carry out our business or become bankrupt or insolvent, or if we

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institute a proceeding to challenge the patent rights. We may terminate the agreement for any reason upon prior written notice to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Max Delbruck Center

In December 2018, we entered into a license agreement with Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) for rights relating to novel humanized antibody fragments, antigen-binding domains and CAR constructs that uniquely target and specifically bind B-cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA). Under our license agreement with MDC, we acquired an exclusive royalty-bearing, sublicensable, worldwide license to make, use and sell products covered by the licensed patent rights, and to perform licensed processes, in each case, using cells derived from allogeneic engineered stem cells. MDC retains a non-exclusive right to use the technology for its own internal research, teaching, and educational purposes.

Under the terms of the license agreement, we are required to pay to MDC an annual license maintenance fee during the term of the agreement. We also are required to make product development, regulatory and sales milestones payments to MDC of up to $11 million per product. If commercial sales of a licensed product commence, we will pay MDC royalties at percentage rates ranging in the low single digits on net sales of licensed products in countries where such product is protected by patent rights. Our obligation to pay royalties continues on a country-by-country basis until the expiration of all licensed patent rights covering licensed products in such country, and our royalty payments will be reduced by other payments we are required to make to third parties in certain circumstances until a minimum royalty percentage has been reached. In the event that we sublicense the patent rights, MDC is also entitled to receive a percentage of the sublicensing income received by us.

Under the license with MDC, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and obtain approval of a licensed product.

The agreement will expire concurrently with patent rights on a country-by-country basis. We may terminate the agreement by providing prior written notice to MDC, and MDC has the right to terminate the agreement if we materially breach the agreement and fail to cure such breach within a specified grace period.

Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

In February 2009, we entered into a license agreement with the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, as amended in October 2009 and September 2010, for rights relating to compositions and methods for reprogramming somatic cells to a less differentiated or pluripotent state. Under our agreement with the Whitehead Institute, we acquired an exclusive royalty-bearing, sublicensable, worldwide license to make, use and sell licensed products in all fields for commercial purposes, excluding the sale or distribution of reagents for basic research use. The licensed patent rights are described in more detail above under “Intellectual Property Relating to iPSC Technology.” The Whitehead Institute retains the right to practice the patent rights for research, teaching and educational purposes, including in corporate-sponsored research under limited circumstances and in some cases only after obtaining our consent. The Whitehead Institute also retains the right to license other academic and non-profit research institutes to practice the patent rights for research, teaching and educational purposes, but not for corporate-sponsored research. Our license is also subject to pre-existing rights of the U.S. government.

Under the terms of the license agreement, we are required to pay the Whitehead Institute an annual license maintenance fee during the term of the agreement, and are also required to make payments of up to $2.3 million for development and regulatory milestones achieved with respect to licensed products. If commercial sales of a licensed product commence, we will also be required to pay royalties at percentage rates in the low-single digits on net sales of licensed products. Our royalty payments are subject to reduction for any third-party payments required to be made until a minimum royalty percentage has been reached. In the event that we sublicense the patent rights, the Whitehead Institute is also entitled to receive a percentage of the sublicensing income received by us.

Under the license agreement with the Whitehead Institute, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize licensed products, and to make licensed products or processes reasonably available to the public. In particular, we are required to commit a minimum amount of funding toward the development of a licensed product on an annual basis or conduct activities toward specific development milestones.

The agreement will continue until the abandonment of all patent rights or expiration of the last to expire licensed patent. The Whitehead Institute may terminate the agreement if we default in the performance of any of our obligations and fail to cure the default within a specified grace period, or if we institute a proceeding to challenge the patent rights. The Whitehead Institute may also terminate the agreement if we cease to carry out our business or become bankrupt or insolvent. We may terminate the agreement for any reason upon prior written notice to the Whitehead Institute and payment of all amounts due to the Whitehead Institute through the date of termination.

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The Scripps Research Institute

We have entered into various license agreements with The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) for rights relating to compositions and methods for reprogramming somatic cells, including the use of various small molecule classes and compounds in the reprogramming and maintenance of iPSCs. Under our agreements with TSRI (the TSRI License Agreements), we acquired exclusive royalty-bearing, sublicensable, worldwide licenses to make, use and sell products covered by the licensed patent rights, and to perform licensed processes, in each case, in all fields. The licensed patent rights are described in more detail above under “Intellectual Property Relating to iPSC Technology.” TSRI retains a non-exclusive right to practice and use the patent rights for non-commercial educational and research purposes, and to license other academic and non-profit research institutions to practice the patent rights for internal basic research and education purposes. Under certain of our TSRI License Agreements, other third parties maintain a right to practice the patent rights for their internal use only. Our license is also subject to pre-existing rights of the U.S. government.

Under the terms of the TSRI License Agreements, we are required to pay to TSRI annual minimum fees during the term of each agreement. Additionally, upon the achievement of specific regulatory and commercial milestones, we are required to make payments to TSRI of up to approximately $1.8 million under each of the TSRI License Agreements. We will also be required to pay TSRI royalties at percentage rates ranging in the low- to mid-single digits on net sales of licensed products. In the event that we sublicense the patent rights, TSRI is also entitled to receive a percentage of the sublicensing income received by us.

Under the TSRI License Agreements, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to meet the development benchmarks set out in development plans under each of the TSRI License Agreements, or otherwise expend a minimum specified amount per year for product development. TSRI has the right to terminate any TSRI License Agreement if we fail to perform our obligations under the applicable agreement, including failure to meet any development benchmark or to use commercially reasonable efforts and due diligence to develop a licensed product, or if we otherwise breach the agreement, challenge the licensed patent rights, are convicted of a felony involving the development or commercialization of a licensed product or process, or become insolvent. We may terminate any of our TSRI License Agreements by providing ninety days’ written notice to TSRI. Each TSRI License Agreement otherwise terminates upon the termination of royalty obligations under such agreement.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

In April 2020, we entered into a license agreement with the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) for rights relating to novel antibody fragments that uniquely and specifically bind the alpha-3 domain of MICA/B. Under our license agreement with DFCI, we acquired an exclusive royalty-bearing, sublicensable, worldwide license to make, use and sell products covered by the licensed patent rights in the field of iPSC-derived cellular therapeutics for the treatment of human disease, and a non-exclusive royalty-bearing, sublicensable, worldwide license to make, use and sell products covered by the licensed patent rights in the field of cellular therapeutics for the treatment of human disease. DFCI retains the right to practice and to license to other academic, government and non-profit institutes to practice the patent rights for research, teaching and education purposes, as well as to license third parties to practice the patents rights to make or sell research reagents or other research tools solely for use in research. Our licenses are also subject to pre-existing rights of the U.S. government.

Under the terms of the license agreement, we are required to make minimum annual payments to DFCI throughout the term of the agreement. We also are required to make development, commercialization and sales milestones payments to DFCI of up to $25 million per licensed product. If commercial sales of a licensed product commence, we will pay DFCI royalties at percentage rates ranging in the low single digits on net sales of licensed products in countries where such product is protected by licensed patent rights. Our obligation to pay royalties continues on a country-by-country basis until the expiration of all licensed patent rights covering licensed products in such country, and our royalty payments will be reduced by other payments we are required to make to third parties in certain circumstances until a minimum royalty percentage has been reached. In the event that we sublicense the patent rights, DFCI is also entitled to receive a percentage of the sublicensing income received by us.

Under our agreement with DFCI, we are obligated to use reasonable efforts to develop and bring one or more licensed products to the marketplace through a program of development, production and distribution, including by meeting certain diligence benchmarks with respect to exclusively licensed products.

The agreement will continue until the expiration of the last to expire licensed patent. DFCI may terminate the agreement for cause, including if we default in the performance of any of our obligations and fail to cure the default within a specified grace period, if an officer of ours (or of an affiliate or sublicensee) is convicted of a felony related to the manufacture, use, sale or important or a licensed product, if we cease to carry out our business or become bankrupt or insolvent, and if we institute a proceeding to challenge the patent rights. DFCI may also terminate our exclusive license if we fail to materially comply with our diligence obligations. We may terminate the agreement for any reason in its entirety or on a product-by-product or country-by-country basis upon prior written notice to DFCI and payment of all amounts due to DFCI through the date of termination.

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Manufacturing

Off-the-shelf, Multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived Cellular Immunotherapies

The manufacture of our off-the-shelf, multiplexed-engineered, iPSC-derived cellular immunotherapy product candidates involves a three-stage process:

The first stage is intended to generate a clonal master iPSC line and generally consists of the following steps: (i) obtain appropriately-consented healthy human donor cells, such as fibroblasts or hematopoietic cells, and conduct transfusion transmissible disease testing on the donor cells; (ii) induction of pluripotency in the donor cells using a proprietary transgene integration-free and footprint-free method of reprogramming; (iii) genetic engineering of iPSCs; and (iv) isolation and selection of a single iPSC, followed by clonal expansion of the single iPSC to produce a clonal master iPSC line for cell product manufacture.
The second stage is intended to derive the cell product population of interest and generally consists of the following steps: (i) expansion and differentiation of the clonal master iPSC line to produce CD34+ definitive hematopoietic progenitor cells; and (ii) further expansion and differentiation of these progenitor cells to produce the cell product population of interest.
The third stage is intended to derive the final cell product and generally consists of the following steps: (i) washing the cell product population; (ii) formulating the cell product population in an infusion media for intravenous administration of the final cell product; and (iii) cryopreserving individual aliquots of the final cell product and storing these aliquots in single-dose infusion bags.

As part of our manufacturing process, we endeavor to utilize current Good Manufacturing Process (cGMP) grade materials and reagents, if commercially available; however, certain critical materials and reagents are currently qualified for research use only. Additionally, we obtain key components required for the manufacture of our iPSC-derived cell product candidates from third-party manufacturers and suppliers, which include, in some instances, sole source manufacturers and suppliers. We do not currently have long-term commitments or supply agreements in place to obtain certain key components used in the manufacture of our iPSC-derived cell product candidates.

We currently manufacture our iPSC-derived cell product candidates for use in research, preclinical development, and clinical development. We operate two cGMP-compliant manufacturing facilities for the clinical production of our iPSC-derived cell product candidates. Both of our manufacturing facilities are located in San Diego, California, and are custom designed for the production of off-the-shelf cell product candidates using clonal master iPSC lines as the starting cell source. Each of these state-of-the-art facilities have been commissioned and qualified, and we have been issued drug manufacturing licenses for each facility by the State of California, Department of Health Services, Food and Drug Branch. With the extension of manufacturing to our new corporate headquarters in 2022, we are positioned to support manufacturing and production of our product candidates for all phases of clinical development as well as initial commercialization.

We also contract with third parties, including medical center cell therapy facilities and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs), for the conduct of some of the activities required to manufacture our iPSC-derived cell product candidates for use in clinical investigation. We expect that we will continue to contract with third parties, including medical center cell therapy facilities and CMOs, for the conduct of certain of the activities required to manufacture our iPSC-derived cell product candidates.

Marketing, Market Access, & Sales

We currently intend to commercialize any products that we may successfully develop. We currently have no experience in marketing, market access or selling therapeutic products. We may need to further evaluate and generate evidence beyond what is generated in our clinical programs that would satisfy the needs of payers and healthcare technology assessment (HTA) bodies. To market any of our products independently would also require us to develop a sales force with technical expertise along with establishing commercial infrastructure and capabilities. Our commercial strategy for marketing our product candidates also may include the use of strategic partners, distributors, a contract sales force or the establishment of our own commercial infrastructure. We plan to further evaluate these alternatives as we approach approval for the first of our product candidates.

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Government Regulation

In the United States, the FDA regulates biological products under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (the PHS Act) and related regulations. Biological products are also subject to other federal, state, local, and foreign statutes and regulations. The FDA and comparable regulatory agencies in state and local jurisdictions and in foreign countries impose substantial requirements upon the clinical development, manufacture and marketing of biological products. These agencies and other federal, state, local, and foreign entities regulate research and development activities and the testing, manufacture, quality control, safety, effectiveness, packaging, labeling, storage, distribution, record keeping, reporting, approval or licensing, advertising and promotion, and import and export of our products. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. regulatory requirements at any time during the product development process or after approval may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. FDA sanctions include refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval or suspension or revocation of a license, clinical hold, warning or untitled letters, voluntary or mandatory product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, mandated corrective advertising or communications with doctors, debarment, restitution, disgorgement of profits, or civil or criminal penalties. In addition, government regulation may delay or prevent marketing of product candidates for a considerable period of time and impose costly procedures upon our activities.

Marketing Approval

The process required by the FDA before biological products may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

completion of nonclinical laboratory and animal tests according to good laboratory practices (GLPs) and applicable requirements for the humane use of laboratory animals or other applicable regulations;
submission to the FDA of an IND application which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;
approval of the protocol and related documentation by an independent institutional review board, or IRB, or ethics committee at each clinical trial site before each trial may be initiated;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials according to the FDA’s regulations commonly referred to as good clinical practices (GCPs) and any additional requirements for the protection of human research subjects and their health information, to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed biological product for its intended use or uses;
submission to the FDA of a Biologics License Application (BLA) for marketing approval that includes substantive evidence of safety, purity, and potency from results of nonclinical testing and clinical trials;
satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of manufacturing facilities where the product is produced to assess compliance with the FDA’s cGMPs to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate, and, if applicable, current good tissue practices (cGTPs) for the use of human cellular and tissue products to prevent the introduction, transmission or spread of communicable diseases;
potential FDA audit of the nonclinical study sites and clinical trial sites that generated the data in support of the BLA;
review of the product candidate by an FDA advisory committee, where appropriate if applicable;
payment of user fees for FDA review of the BLA (unless fee waiver applies); and
FDA review and approval, or licensure, of the BLA which must occur before a biological product can be marketed or sold.

U.S. Biological Products and Drug Development Process

Before testing any biological product candidate in humans, nonclinical tests, including laboratory evaluations and animal studies to assess the potential safety and activity of the product candidate, are conducted. The conduct of the nonclinical tests must comply with federal regulations and requirements including GLPs.

Prior to commencing the first clinical trial, the trial sponsor must submit the results of the nonclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to the FDA as part of an initial IND application. Some nonclinical testing may continue even after the IND application is submitted. The IND application automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA unless the FDA, within the 30-day time period, raises concerns or questions about the conduct of the clinical trial and places the trial on a clinical hold. In such case, the sponsor of the IND application must resolve any outstanding concerns with the FDA before the clinical trial may begin. The FDA also may impose a clinical hold on ongoing clinical trials due to safety concerns or non-compliance. If a clinical hold is imposed, a trial may not recommence without

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FDA authorization and then only under terms authorized by the FDA. A clinical hold may either be a full clinical hold or a partial clinical hold that would limit a trial, for example, to certain doses or for a certain length of time or to a certain number of subjects. Further, an independent IRB for each site proposing to conduct the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at that site. An IRB is charged with protecting the welfare and rights of study subjects and considers such items as whether the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the form and content of the informed consent that must be signed by each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completed. Some trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization as to whether or not a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access that only the group maintains to available data from the trial and may recommend halting the clinical trial if it determines that there is an unacceptable safety risk for subjects or other grounds, such as no demonstration of efficacy.

Clinical trials involve the administration of the product candidate to healthy volunteers or patients under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the trial sponsor’s control. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria, and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety, including rules that assure a clinical trial will be stopped if certain adverse events occur. Each protocol and any amendments to the protocol must be submitted to the FDA and to the IRB. Information about certain clinical studies must be submitted with specific timeframes to the National Institutes of Health for public dissemination at www.clinicaltrials.gov.

For purposes of BLA approval, human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap:

Phase 1—The investigational product is initially introduced into healthy human subjects and tested for safety. In the case of some products for severe or life-threatening diseases, especially when the product may be too inherently toxic to ethically administer to healthy volunteers, the initial human testing is often conducted in patients. These trials may also provide early evidence on effectiveness.
Phase 2—These trials are conducted in a limited number of patients in the target population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage. Multiple Phase 2 clinical trials may be conducted by the sponsor to obtain information prior to beginning larger and more expensive Phase 3 clinical trials.
Phase 3—Phase 3 trials are undertaken to provide statistically significant evidence of clinical efficacy and to further evaluate dosage, potency, and safety in an expanded patient population at multiple clinical trial sites. They are performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the product has been obtained, and are intended to establish the overall benefit-risk relationship of the investigational product, and to provide an adequate basis for product approval and physician labeling.
Phase 4 – In some cases, the FDA may condition approval of a BLA for a product candidate on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct additional clinical studies to further assess the candidate’s safety and effectiveness after approval. Such post-approval trials are typically referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials. The FDA has statutory authority to require post-market clinical trials to address safety issues. A sponsor may also voluntarily conduct additional clinical studies after approval to gain more information about their product. All of these trials must be conducted in accordance with GCP requirements in order for the data to be considered reliable for regulatory purposes.

During all phases of clinical development, regulatory agencies require extensive monitoring and auditing of all clinical activities, clinical data, and clinical trial investigators. Annual progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted to the FDA. Within 15 calendar days after the sponsor determines that the information qualifies for reporting, written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and the investigators for serious and unexpected adverse events; any findings from other studies, tests in laboratory animals or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk for human subjects; or any clinically important increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. The sponsor also must notify the FDA of any unexpected fatal or life-threatening suspected adverse reaction within seven calendar days after the sponsor’s initial receipt of the information.

Regulatory authorities, a data safety monitoring board or the sponsor may suspend a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the participants are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the investigated product has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients, and the trial may not recommence without the IRB’s authorization.

Typically, if a product is intended to treat a chronic disease, safety and efficacy data must be gathered over an extended period of time, which can range from six months to three years or more.

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Concurrently with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the physical characteristics of the investigational product and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. To help reduce the risk of the introduction of adventitious agents with the use of biological products, the PHS Act emphasizes the importance of manufacturing control for products whose attributes cannot be precisely defined. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the sponsor must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality, potency, and purity of the final biological product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the biological product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

A drug being studied in clinical trials may be made available to individual patients in certain circumstances. Pursuant to the 21st Century Cures Act (the Cures Act), as amended, the manufacturer of an investigational drug for a serious disease or condition is required to make available, such as by posting on its website, its policy on evaluating and responding to requests for individual patient access to such investigational drug. This requirement applies on the earlier of the first initiation of a Phase 2 or Phase 3 trial of the investigational drug, or as applicable, 15 days after the drug receives a designation as a breakthrough therapy, fast track product, or RMAT. Further, the Right to Try Act of 2017 among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to request access to certain investigational new drug products that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. There is no obligation for a pharmaceutical manufacturer to make its drug products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act. We review each individual request for access through the Cures Act, the Right to Try Act and similar state laws, and may or may not provide access depending upon the facts of each request.

U.S. Review and Approval Processes

In order to obtain approval to market a biological product in the United States, a BLA must be submitted to the FDA that provides data establishing to the FDA’s satisfaction the safety, purity and potency of the investigational product for the proposed indication. A BLA includes all data available from nonclinical studies and clinical trials, together with detailed information relating to the product’s manufacture and composition, and proposed labeling.

Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), as amended, each BLA must be accompanied by a user fee. The FDA adjusts the PDUFA user fees on an annual basis. According to the FDA’s fee schedule, effective through September 30, 2023, the user fee for an application requiring clinical data, such as a BLA and an NDA, is $3,242,026. PDUFA also imposes an annual prescription drug product program fee for biologics and drugs ($393,933). Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances, including a waiver of the application fee for the first application filed by a small business having fewer than 500 employees. Additionally, no user fees are assessed on BLAs for products designated as orphan drugs, unless the product also includes a non-orphan indication.

The FDA has 60 days from its receipt of a BLA to determine whether the application will be accepted for filing based on the agency’s threshold determination that the application is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. The FDA may refuse to file any BLA that it deems incomplete or not properly reviewable at the time of submission and may request additional information. In this event, the BLA must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application also is subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. After the BLA submission is accepted for filing, the FDA reviews the BLA to determine, among other things, whether the proposed product is safe and effective for its intended use, and has an acceptable purity profile, and whether the product is being manufactured in accordance with cGMPs to assure and preserve the product’s identity, safety, strength, quality, potency, and purity, and for a biological product, whether it meets the biological product standards. The FDA may refer applications for novel products or products that present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically comprised of clinicians and other experts, for evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and, if so, under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

Before approving a BLA, the FDA will inspect the facilities at which the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. For a human cellular or tissue product, the FDA also will not approve the product if the manufacturer is not in compliance with cGTPs. FDA regulations also require tissue establishments to register and list their human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue based products (HCT/Ps) with the FDA and, when applicable, to evaluate donors through screening and testing. Additionally, before approving a BLA, the FDA may inspect clinical sites to assure that the clinical trials were conducted in compliance with IND study requirements and GCPs. If the FDA determines the manufacturing process or manufacturing facilities are not acceptable, it typically will outline the deficiencies and often will require the facility to take corrective action and provide documentation evidencing the implementation of such corrective action, which may delay further review of the application. If the FDA finds that a clinical site did not conduct the clinical trial in accordance with GCPs, the FDA may determine the data generated by the site should be excluded from the primary efficacy analyses provided in the BLA, and request additional testing or data. Additionally, the FDA ultimately may still decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.

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The FDA also has authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) from manufacturers to ensure that the benefits of a biological product outweigh its risks. A sponsor may also voluntarily propose a REMS as part of the BLA submission. The need for a REMS is determined as part of the review of the BLA. Based on statutory standards, elements of a REMS may include “dear doctor letters,” a medication guide, more elaborate targeted educational programs, and in some cases restrictions on distribution. These elements are negotiated as part of the BLA approval, and in some cases may delay the approval date. Once adopted, REMS are subject to periodic assessment and modification.

After the FDA completes its initial review of a BLA, it will communicate to the sponsor that the biological product will either be approved, or it will issue a complete response letter to communicate that the BLA will not be approved in its current form. The complete response letter usually describes all of the specific deficiencies in the BLA identified by the FDA. The deficiencies identified may be minor, for example, requiring labeling changes, or major, for example, requiring additional clinical trials. Additionally, the complete response letter may include recommended actions that the applicant might take to place the application in a condition for approval. If a complete response letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the BLA to address all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application, or request a hearing.

One of the performance goals of the FDA under PDUFA is to review 90% of standard BLAs in 10 months and 90% of priority BLAs in six months, whereupon a review decision is to be made. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates for standard and priority BLAs and its review goals are subject to change from time to time. The review process and the PDUFA goal data may be extended by three months if the FDA requests or the BLA applicant otherwise provides additional information or clarification regarding information already provided in the submission within the last three months before the PDUFA goal date.

Even if a product candidate receives regulatory approval, the approval may be limited to specific disease states, patient populations and dosages, or the indications for use may otherwise be limited. Further, the FDA may require that certain contraindications, warnings, or precautions be included in the product labeling. The FDA may impose restrictions and conditions on product distribution, prescribing, or dispensing in the form of a risk management plan, or otherwise limit the scope of any approval. In addition, the FDA may require Phase 4 post-marketing clinical trials and testing and surveillance programs to monitor the safety of approved products that have been commercialized. Further, even after regulatory approval is obtained, later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product may result in the imposition of new restrictions on the product or complete withdrawal of the product from the market.

Post-Approval Requirements

Products manufactured or distributed pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to monitoring, record-keeping, advertising and promotion, reporting of adverse experiences, and limitations on industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities. Further, if there are any modifications to the drug or biologic, including changes in indications, labeling or manufacturing processes or facilities, the applicant may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new BLA or a BLA supplement, which may require the development of additional data or preclinical studies and clinical trials.

FDA regulations require that approved products be manufactured in specific approved facilities and in accordance with cGMP regulations which require, among other things, quality control and quality assurance, the maintenance of records and documentation, and the obligation to investigate and correct any deviations from cGMP. Manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs or biologics, and those supplying products, ingredients, and components of them, are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic announced and unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP requirements and other regulatory requirements. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. The discovery of violative conditions, including failure to conform to cGMP regulations, could result in enforcement actions.

The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of products that are placed on the market. Drugs may be promoted only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA does not regulate behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments and physicians may legally prescribe available products for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those approved by the FDA. However, the FDA does restrict an applicant’s communications on the subject of off-label use of their products. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws prohibiting the marketing and promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly marketed or promoted off-label use may be subject to significant liability, including criminal and civil penalties under the FDCA and False Claims Act, exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs, and mandatory compliance programs.

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The FDA also may require post-marketing testing, known as Phase 4 testing, and surveillance to monitor the effects of an approved product. Discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or the failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements can have negative consequences, including adverse publicity, restrictions on a product, and judicial or administrative enforcement.

Expedited Development and Review Programs

The FDA is authorized to designate certain products for expedited review if they demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need in the treatment of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition for which there is no effective treatment. These programs are referred to as fast track designation, priority review, accelerated approval, breakthrough therapy designation, and regenerative advanced therapy designation.

Fast Track Designation. The FDA may grant “fast track” status to product candidates that are intended to treat serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions and demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need for the condition. Fast track is a process designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of such product candidates by providing, among other things, more frequent meetings with the FDA to discuss the product candidate’s development plan and rolling review, which allows submission of individually completed sections of an BLA for FDA review before the entire submission is completed. Fast track designation applies to the combination of the product and the specific indication for which it is being studied. The sponsor of a product candidate may request the FDA to designate the product as a fast track product at any time during clinical development. Fast track status does not ensure that a product will be developed more quickly or receive FDA approval. In addition, the fast track designation may be withdrawn by the FDA if the FDA believes that the designation is no longer supported by data emerging in the clinical trial process, or if the designated drug development program is no longer being pursued.

Priority Review. The FDA may give a priority review designation to a product candidate if it has the potential to provide safe and effective therapy where no satisfactory alternative therapy exists or to provide a significant improvement in the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of a disease compared to marketed products. Priority review is intended to reduce the time it takes for the FDA to review a BLA, with the goal to take action on the application within six months from when the application is filed, compared to ten months for a standard review. The FDA will attempt to direct additional resources to the evaluation of an application for a biological product or drug designated for priority review in an effort to facilitate the review.

Accelerated Approval. Additionally, a product may be eligible for accelerated approval. Drug or biological products studied for their safety and effectiveness in treating serious or life-threatening illnesses and that provide meaningful therapeutic benefit over existing treatments may receive accelerated approval, which means that they may be approved on the basis of adequate and well-controlled clinical trials establishing that the product has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit, or on the basis of an effect on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a biological product or drug receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well-controlled post-marketing clinical trials with due diligence and, under the Food and Drug Omnibus Reform Act of 2022 (FDORA), the FDA is now permitted to require, as appropriate, that such trials be underway prior to approval or within a specific time period after the date of approval for a product granted accelerated approval. In addition, the FDA currently requires, unless otherwise informed by the agency, pre-approval of promotional materials for products being considered for accelerated approval. Under FDORA, the FDA has increased authority for expedited procedures to withdraw approval of a drug or indication approved under accelerated approval if, for example, the confirmatory trial fails to verify the predicted clinical benefit of the product.

Breakthrough Therapy Designation. A product candidate intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition may also be eligible for breakthrough therapy designation if preliminary clinical evidence indicates that it may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints. If so designated, the FDA will expedite the development and review of the product candidate’s marketing application, including by meeting with, and providing advice to, the sponsor throughout the product candidate’s development, and taking steps to facilitate an efficient review of the development program and to ensure that the design of the clinical trials is as efficient as practicable.

RMAT Designation. As part of the Cures Act, Congress amended the FDCA to create an accelerated approval program for regenerative advanced therapies. To qualify for this program, and be granted regenerative advanced medicine therapy (RMAT) designation, a product must be a cell therapy, therapeutic tissue engineering product, human cell and tissue product, or a combination of such products, and not a product solely regulated as a human cell and tissue product. This program is intended to facilitate efficient development and expedite review of regenerative advanced therapies, which are intended to treat, modify, reverse, or cure a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence must indicate that the product candidate has the potential to address an unmet need for such disease or condition. A BLA for a product candidate that has received RMAT designation may be eligible for priority review or accelerated approval through (1) surrogate or intermediate endpoints reasonably likely to predict long-term clinical benefit or (2) reliance upon data obtained from a meaningful number of sites. Benefits of such designation also include

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early interactions with FDA to discuss any potential surrogate or intermediate endpoint to be used to support accelerated approval. A designated RMAT product candidate that is granted accelerated approval and is subject to post approval requirements may fulfill such requirements through the submission of clinical evidence, clinical studies, patient registries, or other sources of real world evidence, such as electronic health records; the collection of larger confirmatory data sets; or post approval monitoring of all patients treated with such therapy prior to its approval.

Designated Platform Technology Status. Under FDORA, a platform technology incorporated within or utilized by a drug or biological product is eligible for designation as a designated platform technology if (1) the platform technology is incorporated in, or utilized by, a drug approved under a BLA or NDA; (2) preliminary evidence submitted by the sponsor of the approved or licensed drug, or a sponsor that has been granted a right of reference to data submitted in the application for such drug, demonstrates that the platform technology has the potential to be incorporated in, or utilized by, more than one drug without an adverse effect on quality, manufacturing, or safety; and (3) data or information submitted by the applicable person indicates that incorporation or utilization of the platform technology has a reasonable likelihood to bring significant efficiencies to the drug development or manufacturing process and to the review process. A sponsor may request the FDA to designate a platform technology as a designated platform technology concurrently with, or at any time after, submission of an IND application for a drug that incorporates or utilizes the platform technology that is the subject of the request. If so designated, the FDA may expedite the development and review of any subsequent original BLA for a drug that uses or incorporates the platform technology. Designated platform technology status does not ensure that a drug will be developed more quickly or receive FDA approval. In addition, the FDA may revoke a designation if the FDA determines that a designated platform technology no longer meets the criteria for such designation.

Fast Track designation, priority review, accelerated approval, breakthrough therapy designation, RMAT designation, and designated platform technology status do not change the standards for approval but may expedite the development or approval process. Moreover, even if a product candidate or platform technology qualifies for one or more of these programs, the FDA may later decide that the product candidate or platform technology no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

U.S. Patent Term Restoration and Marketing Exclusivity

Under certain circumstances, U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, commonly referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. Patent term restoration can compensate for time lost during product development and the regulatory review process by returning up to five years of patent life for a patent that covers a new product or its use. However, patent term restoration cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The period of patent term restoration is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND application (falling after issuance of the patent) and the submission date of a BLA, plus the time between the submission date of the BLA and the approval of that application, provided the sponsor acted with diligence. Only one patent applicable to an approved product is eligible for the extension and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. The application for patent term extension is subject to approval by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in consultation with the FDA. A patent term extension is only available when the FDA approves a biological product or drug for the first time.

With the Hatch-Waxman Amendments, Congress authorized the FDA to approve generic drugs that are the same as drugs previously approved by the FDA under the NDA provisions of the FDCA. To obtain approval of a generic drug, an applicant must submit to the agency an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) which relies on the preclinical and clinical testing previously conducted for a drug approved under an NDA, known as the reference listed drug (RLD). For the ANDA to be approved, the FDA must find that the generic version is identical to the RLD with respect to the active ingredients, the route of administration, the dosage form, and the strength of the drug. The FDA must also determine that the generic drug is bioequivalent to the innovator drug.

An abbreviated approval pathway for biological products shown to be biosimilar to, or interchangeable with, an FDA-licensed reference biological product was created by the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, which was part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). This amendment to the PHS Act attempts to minimize duplicative testing. Biosimilarity, which requires that there be no clinically meaningful differences between the biological product and the reference product in terms of safety, purity, and potency, can be shown through analytical studies, animal studies, and a clinical trial or trials. Interchangeability requires that a biological product is biosimilar to the reference biological product and the product must demonstrate that it can be expected to produce the same clinical results as the reference product and, for products administered multiple times, the product and the reference product may be switched after one has been previously administered without increasing safety risks or risks of diminished efficacy relative to exclusive use of the reference biological product.

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A reference biological product is granted twelve years of exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the reference product. The first biological product submitted under the abbreviated approval pathway that is determined to be interchangeable with the reference product has exclusivity against other biologics submitting under the abbreviated approval pathway for the lesser of (i) one year after the first commercial marketing, (ii) 18 months after approval if there is no legal challenge, (iii) 18 months after the resolution in the applicant’s favor of a lawsuit challenging the biologic’s patents if an application has been submitted, or (iv) 42 months after the application has been approved if a lawsuit is ongoing within the 42-month period.

A biological product or drug can obtain pediatric market exclusivity in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity, if granted, adds six months to existing exclusivity periods and patent terms. This six-month exclusivity, which runs from the end of other exclusivity protection or patent term, may be granted based on the voluntary completion of a pediatric study in accordance with an FDA-issued “Written Request” for such a study.

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to biological products and drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a biological product or drug in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting a BLA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the identity of the applicant, the name of the therapeutic agent and its designated orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process.

If a biological product or drug that receives orphan drug designation is the first such product approved by FDA for the orphan indication, it receives orphan product exclusivity, which for seven years prohibits the FDA from approving another application to market the same product for the same indication. Orphan product exclusivity will not bar approval of another product under certain circumstances, including if the new product is shown to be clinically superior to the approved product on the basis of greater efficacy or safety or a demonstration that the new product otherwise makes a major contribution to patient care. More than one product may also be approved by the FDA for the same orphan indication or disease as long as the products are different. If a biological product or drug designated as an orphan product receives marketing approval for an indication broader than what is designated, it may not be entitled to orphan product exclusivity. Orphan drug status in the European Union has similar, but not identical, benefits.

Pediatric Research Equity Act

Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA), as amended, a BLA or supplement must contain data to assess the safety and effectiveness of the biological product or drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. The intent of PREA is to compel sponsors whose products have pediatric applicability to study those products in pediatric populations. The FDCA requires manufacturers of biological products and drugs that include a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration to submit a pediatric study plan to the FDA as part of the IND application. The plan must be submitted not later than 60 days after the end-of-Phase 2 meeting with the FDA; or if there is no such meeting, before the initiation of any Phase 3 trials or a combined Phase 2 and Phase 3 trial; or if no such trial will be conducted, no later than 210 days before submitting a marketing application or supplement. The FDA may grant deferrals for submission of data or full or partial waivers. Generally, PREA does not apply to any biological product or drug for an indication for which orphan designation has been granted.

Coverage and Reimbursement

Sales of our products, when and if approved, will depend, in part, on the extent to which our products will be covered by third-party payors, such as government health programs, commercial insurance and managed healthcare organizations. In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug or biological products exists. Accordingly, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for any of our products will be made on a payor-by-payor basis. Additionally, coverage determinations often require generating additional evidence related, for example, to the relative costs and benefits of new therapies versus standard of care – which goes beyond the data able to be generated within our clinical programs. Patients are unlikely to use our products unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of their cost.

In the United States, for example, principal decisions about reimbursement for new products are typically made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, which decides whether and to what extent a new product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare. Private third-party payors often follow CMS’s decisions regarding coverage and reimbursement to a substantial degree. However, one third-party payor’s determination to provide coverage for a product candidate does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product candidate. Further, no uniform policy for coverage and reimbursement exists in the United States, and coverage and reimbursement can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, coverage determination is often a

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time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained. Further, coverage policies and third-party payor reimbursement rates may change at any time. Even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

The U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have shown significant interest in implementing cost containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid health care costs, including price-controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of biosimilars for branded prescription drugs. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. In addition, many pharmaceutical manufacturers must calculate and report certain price reporting metrics to the government, such as average sales price and best price. Penalties may apply in some cases when such metrics are not submitted accurately and timely. Increasingly, third-party payors are also requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. We cannot be sure that reimbursement will be available for any product candidate that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, the level of reimbursement.

In some foreign countries, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. The requirements governing drug pricing vary widely from country to country. For example, the European Union provides options for its Member States to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval, some of these countries may require the completion of clinical trials that compare the cost effectiveness of a particular product candidate to currently available therapies. A Member State may approve a specific price for the medicinal product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of our product candidates. Historically, products launched in the European Union do not follow price structures of the United States and generally prices tend to be significantly lower.

Healthcare Reform and Other Regulatory Changes

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and likely will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system directed at broadening the availability of healthcare, improving the quality of healthcare, and containing or lowering the cost of healthcare.

For example, in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, each as amended, collectively known as the ACA was enacted in the United States. The ACA includes measures that have significantly changed, and are expected to continue to significantly change, the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. The ACA contained a number of provisions, including those governing enrollment in federal healthcare programs, reimbursement adjustments and changes to fraud and abuse laws. Among the provisions of the ACA of greatest importance to the pharmaceutical industry are that the ACA:

subjects biological products to potential competition by biosimilars;
made several changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, including increasing pharmaceutical manufacturers’ rebate liability; and
extended a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations.

Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the Affordable Care Act was enacted include the following:

The Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year.
On January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers.
On April 13, 2017, CMS published a final rule that gives states greater flexibility in setting benchmarks for insurers in the individual and small group marketplaces, which may have the effect of relaxing the essential health benefits required under the ACA for plans sold through such marketplaces.
On May 23, 2019, CMS published a final rule to allow Medicare Advantage Plans the option of using step therapy for Part B drugs beginning January 1, 2020.

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The Inflation Reduction Act (the IRA) includes several provisions that may impact our business to varying degrees, including provisions that create a $2,000 out-of-pocket cap for Medicare Part D beneficiaries, impose new manufacturer financial liability on certain drugs under Medicare Part D, allow the U.S. government to negotiate Medicare Part B and Part D pricing for certain high-cost drugs without generic or biosimilar competition, require companies to pay rebates to Medicare for drug prices that increase faster than inflation, and delay the rebate rule that would require pass through of pharmacy benefit manager rebates to beneficiaries. Further, under the IRA, orphan drugs are exempted from the Medicare drug price negotiation program, but only if they have one rare disease designation and for which the only approved indication is for that disease or condition. If a product receives multiple rare disease designations or has multiple approved indications, it may not qualify for the orphan drug exemption. The effect of IRA on our business and the healthcare industry in general is not yet known.

The costs of prescription pharmaceuticals have also been the subject of considerable discussion in the United States. To date, there have been several recent U.S. congressional inquiries, as well as proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, reduce the costs of drugs under Medicare and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. President Biden has issued multiple executive orders that have sought to reduce prescription drug costs. Although a number of these and other proposed measures may require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, and the Biden administration may reverse or otherwise change these measures, both the Biden administration and Congress have indicated that they will continue to seek new legislative measures to control drug costs.

At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. This could reduce the ultimate demand for our drugs or put pressure on our drug pricing, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Other Healthcare Laws and Compliance Requirements

Pharmaceutical companies are subject to additional healthcare regulation and enforcement by the federal government and by authorities in the states and foreign jurisdictions in which they conduct their business that may constrain the financial arrangements and relationships through which we research, as well as sell, market and distribute any products for which we obtain marketing authorization. Arrangements with third-party payors and customers can expose pharmaceutical manufactures to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the federal False Claims Act, or the FCA, which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which companies research, sell, market and distribute pharmaceutical products. In addition, transparency laws and patient privacy laws can apply to the activities of pharmaceutical manufactures. The applicable federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations that can affect a pharmaceutical company’s operations include without limitation:

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce, or in return for, either the referral of an individual, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of any good, facility, item or service for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under the Medicare and Medicaid programs, or other federal healthcare programs. A person or entity can be found guilty of violating the statute without actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. Violations are subject to civil and criminal fines and penalties for each violation, plus up to three times the remuneration involved, imprisonment, and exclusion from government healthcare programs. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA or federal civil monetary penalties. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on the one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers on the other. There are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution, but such exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly and require strict compliance in order to offer protection;
The federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the FCA, and civil monetary penalty laws, which prohibit any person or entity from, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false, fictitious or fraudulent claim for payment to, or approval by, the federal government or knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used a false record or statement, including providing inaccurate billing or coding information to customers or promoting a product off-label, material to a false or fraudulent claim to the federal government. As a result of a

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modification made by the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, a claim includes “any request or demand” for money or property presented to the federal government. In addition, manufacturers can be held liable under the FCA even when they do not submit claims directly to government payors if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims. The FCA also permits a private individual acting as a “whistleblower” to bring actions on behalf of the federal government alleging violations of the FCA and to share in any monetary recovery;
The federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which created federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity can be found guilty of violating HIPAA without actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (HITECH), and their respective implementing regulations, which impose, among other things, specified requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information held by covered entities and their business associates as well as their covered subcontractors. HITECH also created new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions;
The federal legislation commonly referred to as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, created under the ACA, and its implementing regulations, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to CMS, information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians, other licensed care professionals and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
Federal government price reporting laws, which require us to calculate and report complex pricing metrics in an accurate and timely manner to government programs;
Federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers; and
Analogous state laws and regulations, including: state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to our business practices, including, but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state and local laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; state laws that require the reporting of information related to drug pricing; state and local laws requiring the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

The scope and enforcement of each of these laws is uncertain and subject to rapid change in the current environment of healthcare reform, especially in light of the lack of applicable precedent and regulations with respect to certain laws. Federal and state enforcement bodies have recently increased their scrutiny of interactions between healthcare companies and healthcare providers, which has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. Prohibitions or restrictions on sales or withdrawal of future marketed products could materially affect our business in an adverse way. Changes in regulations, statutes or the interpretation of existing regulations could impact our business in the future by requiring, for example: (i) changes to our manufacturing arrangements; (ii) additions or modifications to product labeling; (iii) the recall or discontinuation of our products; or (iv) additional record-keeping requirements. If any such changes were to be imposed, they could adversely affect the operation of our business. Ensuring our business arrangements comply with applicable healthcare laws, as well as responding to possible investigations by government authorities, can be time- and resource-consuming and can divert a company’s attention from the business.

The failure to comply with any of these laws or regulatory requirements subjects companies to possible legal or regulatory action. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements can result in significant penalties,

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including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, possible exclusion from participation in federal and state funded healthcare programs, contractual damages and the curtailment or restricting of our operations, as well as additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws. Any action for violation of these laws, even if successfully defended, could cause a pharmaceutical company to incur significant legal expenses and divert management’s attention from the operation of the business.

Regulations Governing Data Collection and the Use, Processing and Cross-Border Transfer of Personal Information

We also may be or may become subject to various state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

For example, California has enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which created new individual privacy rights for California consumers (as defined in the law) and placed increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal data of consumers or households. Effective as of January 2020, the CCPA requires covered companies to provide certain disclosures to consumers about its data collection, use and sharing practices, and to provide affected California residents with ways to opt out of certain sales or transfers of personal information, and also regulates employee information. On November 3, 2020, California passed the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) which builds on the CCPA and expands consumer privacy rights. The CPRA went into effect on January 1, 2023 and applies to information collected on or after January 1, 2022. While there is currently an exception in the CCPA and CPRA for protected health information that is subject to HIPAA, the CCPA and CPRA may impact our business activities. Virginia and Colorado have also passed comprehensive privacy laws that became effective in 2023 and other U.S. states also are considering omnibus privacy legislation, and industry organizations regularly adopt and advocate for new standards in these areas.

In addition, as of May 25, 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regulates the collection and use of personal data in the European Union (EU). The GDPR covers any business, regardless of its location, that provides goods or services to residents in the EU and, thus, could incorporate any activities we undertake in EU member states. The GDPR imposes strict requirements on controllers and processors of personal data, including special protections for “sensitive information,” which includes health and genetic information of individuals residing in the EU. The GDPR grants individuals the opportunity to object to the processing of their personal information, allows them to request deletion of personal information in certain circumstances, and provides the individual with an express right to seek legal remedies in the event the individual believes his or her rights have been violated. Further, the GDPR imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the EU to regions that have not been deemed to offer “adequate” privacy protections, such as the U.S. currently. Failure to comply with the requirements of the GDPR and the related national data protection laws of the EU member states, which may deviate slightly from the GDPR, may result in warning letters, mandatory audits and financial penalties, including fines of up to 4% of global revenues, or €20,000,000, whichever is greater.

Further to the United Kingdom's (UK) exit from the EU on January 31, 2020, the GDPR ceased to apply in the UK at the end of the transition period on December 31, 2020. However, as of January 1, 2021, the UK’s European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 incorporated the GDPR (as it existed on December 31, 2020 but subject to certain UK specific amendments) into UK law (referred to as the 'UK GDPR'). The UK GDPR and the UK Data Protection Act 2018 set out the UK’s data protection regime, which is independent from but aligned to the EU’s data protection regime. Non-compliance with the UK GDPR may result in monetary penalties of up to £17.5 million or 4% of worldwide revenue, whichever is higher. Although the UK is regarded as a third country under the EU’s GDPR, the European Commission (EC) has now issued a decision recognizing the UK as providing adequate protection under the EU GDPR and, therefore, transfers of personal data originating in the EU to the UK remain unrestricted. Like the EU GDPR, the UK GDPR restricts personal data transfers outside the UK to countries not regarded by the UK as providing adequate protection. The UK government has confirmed that personal data transfers from the UK to the EEA remain free flowing.

Other Regulations

We are also subject to numerous federal, state and local laws relating to such matters as safe working conditions, manufacturing practices, environmental protection, fire hazard control, and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances. We may incur significant costs to comply with such laws and regulations now or in the future.

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Competition

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapid innovation, intense and dynamic competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary products. While we believe that our technology, scientific knowledge and experience in the field of cellular immunotherapy provide us with competitive advantages, we face potential competition from many different sources, including major pharmaceutical, specialty pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions and governmental agencies and public and private research institutions, as well as standard-of-care treatments, new products undergoing development and combinations of existing and new therapies. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with existing therapies and new therapies, including antibody-based therapies such as bi-specific antibodies, and combinations thereof, that may become available in the future.

Cellular immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer have recently been an area of significant research and development by academic institutions and biopharmaceutical companies. Novartis AG (Novartis) and Kite Pharma, Inc. (Kite) were the first to obtain FDA approval for autologous CAR T-cell therapies for the treatment of certain cancers. Novartis obtained FDA approval to commercialize Kymriah in August 2017 for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed / refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in May 2018, for the treatment of adults with relapsed / refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and in May 2022 for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed / refractory follicular lymphoma. In October 2017, Kite obtained FDA approval to commercialize Yescarta for the treatment of adults with relapsed / refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Bristol-Myers Squibb received FDA approval in 2021 for two new, autologous T-cell therapy products – Breyanzi for the treatment of relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy, and Abecma for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. More recently, Janssen Biotech, Inc. received FDA approval in February 2022 for Carvykti for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed / refractory multiple myeloma.

We are developing our off-the-shelf NK- and T-cell product candidates for the treatment of cancer. While we believe our use of clonal master iPSC lines for the production of our off-the-shelf NK- and T-cell product candidates is highly differentiated, a number of clinical-stage companies are currently focused on the development of cellular immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer, including Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc, Allogene Therapeutics, Inc., Atara Biotherapeutics, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Caribou Biosciences, Inc., Cellectis SA, Celularity, Inc., CRISPR Therapeutics AG, Gilead Sciences, Inc., ImmunityBio, Inc., Intellia Therapeutics, Inc., Iovance Biotherapeutics, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Legend Biotech Corporation, Nkarta, Inc., Novartis AG, Precision Biosciences, Inc., Sanofi SA, and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, and 2seventy bio, Inc. Preclinical-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

We compete against our competitors in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical study sites and subject enrollment for clinical studies, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Many of our competitors, either alone or with their collaboration partners, have substantially greater financial, technical and human resources than we do and significantly greater experience in the discovery and development of product candidates, obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals of treatments and commercializing those treatments. Accordingly, our competitors may be more successful than us in obtaining approval for treatments and achieving widespread market acceptance.

We anticipate that we will face intense and increasing competition as new products enter the market and advanced technologies become available. We expect any treatments that we develop and commercialize to compete on the basis of, among other things, efficacy, safety, convenience of administration and delivery, price, the level of generic competition and the availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payers. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.

Insurance

We maintain product liability insurance for our clinical trials. We intend to expand our insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products if marketing approval is obtained for products in development. However, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive, and we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. In addition, we may not be able to obtain commercially reasonable product liability insurance for any products approved for marketing.

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Human Capital

Our success as a company depends upon the innovation, drive, and dedication of our employees, and we seek to attract, incentivize, and reward creative and performance-driven employees. We believe our commitment to our human capital resources is an important component of our business that enables us to deliver superior performance in our industry.

We focus on identifying, recruiting, developing and retaining a team of highly talented and motivated employees. As of December 31, 2022, we employed 551 employees, all of whom are full-time employees, including 238 in research and development, 212 in clinical development, manufacturing and regulatory affairs and 101 in general and administrative. We have never had a work stoppage, and none of our employees is represented by a labor organization or under any collective bargaining arrangements. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good, and we provide all employees with the opportunity to share their opinions in open dialogues with our human resources department and senior management.

In January 2023, we implemented a corporate restructuring to streamline our operations, reduce our operating expenses, extend our cash runway and focus our resources on our most promising programs. In connection with the restructuring, we committed to a reduction in our total workforce by approximately 60%, to approximately 220 employees.

Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion

We believe that an equitable, diverse, and inclusive workforce is a necessary foundation for innovation and dedication of our employees. Accordingly, we strive to promote diversity, inclusion and equal opportunity across the organization. We are committed to actively seeking out highly qualified women and minority candidates, as well as candidates with diverse backgrounds, skills and experiences. As of January 6, 2023, women made up 53.4% of our workforce and represented 42.9% of leadership positions at the Director level and above.

Health and Safety

The success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being, health and safety of our employees, and we are committed to providing a safe, healthy and secure workplace for our employees. We have an environmental health and safety program and maintain various compliance programs to support this commitment. We routinely train and educate our employees on workplace safety and security. Early in the pandemic we formed a COVID-19 task force dedicated to monitoring ongoing developments and guidance issued by local, state and public health authorities. Our COVID-19 task force provides regular updates and recommendations to our executive team, and provides timely communication and training to our employee base about the various safety measures we have put into place to protect their health and wellbeing. We took proactive action early on, implementing site enhancements and risk protocols, instituting remote working arrangements and adjusting our sick leave policies, and in our effort to support the safe occupancy of our sites, reconfigured work and common spaces to allow for social distancing increased office cleaning protocols, instituted daily health screenings and COVID-19 testing. As testing has become more readily available, we have offered both onsite testing and memberships to local medical clinics that offer testing. We continue to monitor and adjust our safety training and protocols as the pandemic continues to evolve.

Compensation and Benefits

We offer competitive pay, with performance-based bonuses and equity awards. The principal purposes of our equity and cash incentive plans are to attract, retain and reward personnel through the granting of stock-based and cash-based compensation awards in order to increase stockholder value and the success of our company by motivating such individuals to perform to the best of their abilities and achieve our objectives. We have a comprehensive benefits program offering flexibility for our employees’ individual needs and requirements. Our benefits program includes a choice of medical plans, vision and dental coverage, flexible spending accounts for health and dependent day care needs, and income protection through life, AD&D, short term and long term disability coverage, sick leave, paid family leave, and generous paid time off. We offer a 401(k) retirement plan with company matching a percentage of employee contributions, an employee assistance program, and onsite fitness centers at no cost to our employees.

Employee Development and Engagement

We are focused on attracting and retaining a team of highly talented and motivated employees. We invest in and develop all levels of employees by engaging in ongoing career pathing and professional development conversations throughout an employee’s tenure. In addition, we provide targeted leadership development programs for frontline leaders through executive leadership programs and offer a number of professional, management and leadership development training programs to help our employees develop cross-functional skills and tools to grow their careers.

Employees are incentivized for key contributions through awards programs that recognize their commitment and dedication by demonstrating our Fate Pathways to Success.

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We focus on identifying, recruiting, developing and retaining a team of highly talented and motivated employees. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good. We believe our commitment to our human capital resources is an important component of our business that enables us to deliver superior performance in our industry. We provide all employees with the opportunity to share their opinions in open dialogues with our human resources department and senior management. We provide all employees a wide range of professional development experiences, both formal and informal. The safety and wellbeing of our employees is a paramount value for us. Further, the health and wellness of our employees are critical to our success. We provide our employees with access to a variety of flexible and convenient health and wellness programs. Such programs are designed to support employees' physical and mental health by providing tools and resources to help them improve or maintain their health status and encourage engagement in healthy behaviors. Additionally, we provide competitive compensation and benefits. In addition to salaries, these programs can include annual bonuses, stock-based compensation awards, a 401(k) plan with employee matching opportunities, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave, and family care resources.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in 2007, and are headquartered in San Diego, CA. Our principal executive office is located at 12278 Scripps Summit Drive, San Diego, California 92131, and our telephone number is (858) 875-1800. Our website address is www.fatetherapeutics.com. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We own various U.S. federal trademark registrations and applications, and unregistered trademarks, including Fate Therapeutics®, our corporate logo. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this document are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this document are referred to without the symbols® and ™, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

Available Information

We post our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, including exhibits, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, on the Investors section of our public website (www.fatetherapeutics.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, you can read our SEC filings over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. You can access these filings on our website or from the SEC free of charge. The contents of these websites are not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Further, our references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in our other public filings. The occurrence of any of these risks could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or growth prospects or cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements we have made in this report and those we may make from time to time. You should consider all of the risk factors described in our public filings when evaluating our business.

Risks Related to the Discovery, Development and Regulation of Our Product Candidates

If we fail to complete the preclinical or clinical development of, or to obtain regulatory approval for, our product candidates, our business would be significantly harmed.

All of our product candidates are currently in research or early clinical development. We have not completed clinical development of or obtained regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. Only a small percentage of research and development programs ultimately result in commercially successful products, and we cannot assure you that any of our product candidates will demonstrate the safety, purity and potency, or efficacy profiles necessary to support further preclinical study, clinical development or regulatory approval.

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We may delay or cancel our ongoing and planned clinical development activities or research and development activities for any of our product candidates for a variety of reasons, including:

difficulties in optimizing the right dose and schedule for our product candidates, which might result in a determination that a product candidate is ineffective, causes harmful side effects, or otherwise presents unacceptable safety risks during clinical trials or has an unfavorable toxicity profile in preclinical studies to support clinical investigation;
difficulties in manufacturing or distributing a product candidate, including the inability to manufacture and distribute a product candidate in a sufficient quantity, suitable form, or in a cost-effective manner, or under protocols and processes and with materials and facilities acceptable to the FDA for the conduct of clinical trials or for marketing approval;
our prioritization of other of our product candidates for advancement or the emergence of competing product candidates developed by others, including a decision to cease research and development of any existing product candidate due to the potential obsolescence of our product candidate by a competing product or product candidate or our determination that another of our existing or future product candidates has greater potential for clinical development, regulatory approval, or commercialization, including potentially greater therapeutic benefit, a more favorable safety or efficacy profile, a more consistent or more cost effective manufacturing process, or more a favorable commercial profile, including greater market acceptance or commercial potential, or more advantageous intellectual property position;
challenges and delays in trial execution associated with our testing of multiple product candidates in the same indication in different clinical trials, as well as competition from biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, universities, and other research institutions for patients and clinical trial sites;
the proprietary rights of third parties, which may preclude us from developing, manufacturing or commercializing a product candidate;
determining that a product candidate may be uneconomical to develop, manufacture, or commercialize, or may fail to achieve market acceptance or an adequate pricing and reimbursement profile;
our inability to secure or maintain relationships with strategic partners that may be necessary for advancement of a product candidate into or through clinical development, regulatory approval and commercialization in any particular indication(s) or geographic territory(ies); or
difficulty establishing predictive preclinical models for demonstration of safety and efficacy of a product candidate in one or more potential therapeutic areas for clinical development.

For example, in January 2023, we announced the discontinuation of our FT516, FT596, FT538, and FT536 NK cell programs to focus our resources on advancing our most innovative and differentiated programs. We also announced the termination of our Collaboration and Option Agreement with Janssen, which will take effect on April 3, 2023. As a result of the termination, we will wind down all collaboration activities in the first quarter of 2023, including development of two product candidates that were expected to enter the clinic in 2023.

Additionally, we will only be able to obtain regulatory approval to market a product candidate if we can demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, in well-designed and conducted clinical trials that such product candidate is manufactured in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements, is safe, pure and potent, or effective, and otherwise meets the appropriate standards required for approval for a particular indication. Our ability to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates depends on, among other things, completion of additional preclinical studies, process development and manufacturing activities, and clinical trials, whether our clinical trials demonstrate statistically significant efficacy with safety profiles that do not potentially outweigh the therapeutic benefit, and whether regulatory agencies agree that the data from our clinical trials and our manufacturing operations are sufficient to support approval. In addition, the approval by the FDA of new products in the same indications that we are studying may change the standard of care, and this may result in the FDA or other regulatory agencies requesting that we conduct additional studies to show that our product candidate is superior to the new standard of care. Securing regulatory approval also requires the submission of information about product manufacturing operations to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authority. The results of our current and future clinical trials may not meet the FDA’s or other regulatory agencies’ requirements to approve a product candidate for marketing, and the regulatory agencies may otherwise determine that our manufacturing operations are insufficient to support approval. We may need to conduct preclinical studies and clinical trials that we currently do not anticipate, including as a result of changes in the standard of care. If we fail to complete preclinical or clinical development of, or obtain regulatory approval for, our product candidates, we will not be able to generate any revenues from product sales and our ability to receive milestone or other payments under any collaboration agreements may be impaired, which will harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may face delays in initiating, conducting or completing our clinical trials, and we may not be able to initiate, conduct or complete them at all.

We are heavily dependent on our ability to complete the clinical development of, and obtain regulatory approval for, our product candidates. We have not completed the clinical trials necessary to support an application for approval to market any of our product candidates. We, or any investigators who initiate or conduct clinical trials of our product candidates, may experience delays in our current or future clinical trials, and we do not know whether we or our investigators will be able to initiate, enroll patients in, or complete, clinical trials of our product candidates on time, if at all. Current and future clinical trials of our product candidates may be delayed, unsuccessful or terminated, or not initiated at all, as a result of many factors, including factors related to:

difficulties in identifying eligible patients for participation in clinical trials of our product candidates, due in part to our focus on the development of certain of our product candidates for the treatment of rare diseases;
difficulties enrolling a sufficient number of suitable patients to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates, including difficulties resulting from patients enrolling in studies of therapeutic product candidates sponsored by us or our competitors and difficulties resulting from patient availability as a result of mandated travel restrictions, prioritization of hospital and other medical resources toward pandemic efforts, policies and procedures implemented at clinical sites with respect to the conduct of clinical trials, and other precautionary measures taken in treating patients or in practicing medicine in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
difficulties determining suitable doses and schedules of our novel cell product candidates for evaluation in clinical trials;
difficulties in obtaining agreement from regulatory authorities on study endpoints and/or study duration, achieving study endpoints, the amount and sufficiency of data demonstrating efficacy and safety, and completing data analysis in clinical trials for any of our product candidates;
difficulties in obtaining agreement from regulatory authorities on the preclinical safety and efficacy data, the manufacturing requirements, and the clinical trial design and parameters necessary for an IND application to go into effect to initiate and conduct clinical trials for any of our current product candidates and any other product candidates that we may identify;
the occurrence of unexpected safety issues or adverse events in any ongoing or future clinical trials of our product candidates, including in trials of our product candidates conducted by investigator-sponsors;
securing and maintaining the support of clinical investigators and investigational sites, including investigators and sites who may conduct clinical trials under an investigator-sponsored IND with our financial support, and obtaining institutional review board (IRB) approval at each site for the conduct of our clinical trials;
reaching agreement on acceptable terms with third-party service providers and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different service providers and clinical trial sites;
failure, by us or third parties that we contract with, to manufacture certain of our product candidates consistently, and in sufficient quantities, in accordance with our protocol-specified manufacturing requirements and applicable regulatory requirements;
failure or delays in obtaining sufficient quantities of suitable raw materials, components, and equipment necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials or the manufacture of any product candidate, including any inability to obtain materials as a result of supply chain issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing conflict in Ukraine;
failure or delays by us or by our clinical sites to obtain sufficient quantities of components and supplies necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials, including any inability to obtain agents such as cyclophosphamide or fludarabine which are often required to condition patients for treatment with our product candidates, or certain monoclonal antibodies which are intended for administration to patients in combination with many of our product candidates in certain of our clinical trials;
challenges in distributing our product candidates to clinical trial sites, or failure to establish effective protocols for the supply and transport of our product candidates;
the costs of conducting clinical trials or manufacturing of our product candidates being greater than we anticipate, including due to rising inflation rates, or the timelines for these activities being longer than we anticipate;
our failure, or the failure of investigators, third-party service providers, or clinical trial sites, to ensure the proper and timely conduct of and analysis of data from clinical trials of our product candidates;
inability to reach agreement on clinical trial design and parameters with regulatory authorities, investigators, and IRBs;

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regulatory authorities or data monitoring committees requiring or recommending suspension, termination or a clinical hold for various reasons, including concerns about patient safety or the safety of novel therapeutics derived from pluripotent or genome edited therapies;
the serious, life-threatening diseases of the patients enrolled in our clinical trials, who may die or suffer adverse medical events during the course of the trials for reasons that may not be related to our product candidates;
failure of patients to complete clinical trials or adhere to study protocols due to safety issues, side effects, disruptions in study conduct, including study monitoring, data collection and analysis, restrictions on hospital visits or travel relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, or other reasons;
approval of competitive agents that may materially alter the standard of care on which a clinical development plan was based, which may require new or additional trials, or render our product candidates or clinical trial designs obsolete;
governmental or regulatory delays, including any delays due to limitations on the availability of governmental and regulatory agency personnel to review regulatory filings, conduct site inspections or engage in discussions with us as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, failure to obtain regulatory approval, or uncertainty or changes in U.S. or foreign regulatory requirements, policy or guidelines; and
limitations on clinical trial conduct at our clinical trial sites resulting from prioritization of hospital and other medical resources toward other efforts, such as the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health concerns, policies and procedures implemented at clinical sites with respect to the conduct of clinical trials including those relating to site initiation, study monitoring, and data collection and analysis, and other precautionary measures taken in treating patients or in practicing medicine in response to various public health concerns.

If there are delays in initiating or conducting any clinical trials of our product candidates or any of these clinical trials are terminated before completion, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed. In addition, any delays in initiating, conducting or completing our clinical trials or adjustments to certain of our study protocols and procedures, including as a result of any shortage of materials or agents necessary to conduct our studies or as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or other factors, will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and regulatory approval process, and jeopardize our ability to gain regulatory approval, commence product sales and generate revenues. Furthermore, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the initiation, conduct or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates. Any of these occurrences would significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and market price of shares of our common stock.

The manufacture and distribution of our cell product candidates, particularly our iPSC-derived cell product candidates, is complex and subject to a multitude of risks. These risks could substantially increase our costs and limit the clinical and commercial supply of our product candidates, and the development and commercialization of our product candidates could be substantially delayed or restricted if the FDA or other regulatory authorities impose additional requirements on our manufacturing operations or if we are required to change our manufacturing operations to comply with regulatory requirements.

The manufacture and supply of our cell product candidates involve novel processes that are more complex than those required for most small molecule drugs and other cellular immunotherapies, and accordingly present significant challenges and are subject to multiple risks. For our iPSC-derived product candidates, these complex processes include reprogramming human fibroblasts to obtain iPSCs, in some cases genetically engineering these iPSCs, and differentiating the iPSCs to obtain the desired cell product candidate. As a result of the complexities in manufacturing biologics and distributing cell therapies, the cost to manufacture and distribute biologics and cell therapies in general, and our cell product candidates in particular, is generally higher than for traditional small molecule chemical compounds. In addition, our cost of goods development is at an early stage. The actual cost to manufacture and process our product candidates could be greater than we expect and could materially and adversely affect the commercial viability of our product candidates.

We have limited experience in the manufacture of cell-based therapies. We are still developing optimized and reproducible manufacturing processes for clinical and commercial-scale manufacturing of our product candidates, and none of our manufacturing processes have been validated for commercial production of our product candidates. We may face multiple challenges as we scale our manufacturing for large-scale clinical trials or commercial-scale including, among others, cost overruns, potential problems with process scale-up, process reproducibility, stability issues, compliance with good manufacturing practices, lot consistency and timely availability of raw materials. In addition, we are continuing to optimize our protocols for the supply and transport of our product candidates for distribution to clinical trial sites. Although we are working to develop reproducible and commercially viable manufacturing processes for our product candidates, and effective protocols for the supply and transport of our product candidates, doing so is a difficult and uncertain task.

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We may make changes or be required by the FDA to make changes to our manufacturing processes, including materials and equipment used in manufacturing our product candidates, as we continue to develop and refine the manufacturing and distribution processes for our product candidates for advanced clinical trials and commercialization, and we cannot be sure that even minor changes in these processes, materials, and equipment will not cause our product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of our ongoing and planned clinical trials or the performance of the product once commercialized. In some circumstances, changes in our manufacturing operations, including to our protocols, processes, materials or facilities used, may require us to perform additional preclinical or comparability studies, or to collect additional clinical data from patients prior to undertaking additional clinical studies or filing for regulatory approval for a product candidate. These requirements may lead to delays in our clinical development and commercialization plans for our product candidates, and may increase our development costs substantially.

The manufacturing processes for any products that we may develop are subject to FDA and foreign regulatory authority approval requirements, and we will need to meet, and our CMOs or other third party manufacturers will need to meet, all applicable FDA and foreign regulatory authority requirements on an ongoing basis. Our existing product candidates are currently manufactured by us or by third-party cell processing facilities or CMOs, including facilities operated by or affiliated with our clinical sites, and our current manufacturing operations, including protocols, processes, materials, and facilities, may not support regulatory approval of our existing product candidates. We may be required to identify alternative protocols, processes, materials or facilities for the manufacture of any of these product candidates in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements. In addition, we may be required to make changes to our protocols for the supply and transport of our product candidates to enable effective distribution of our product candidates. Any modifications to our manufacturing and supply protocols, processes, materials or facilities, and any delays in, or inability to, establish acceptable manufacturing and supply operations for our product candidates could require us to incur additional development costs or result in delays to our clinical development. If we or our CMOs or other third-party manufacturers are unable to reliably produce products to specifications acceptable to the FDA or other regulatory authorities, we may not obtain or maintain the regulatory approvals we need to commercialize such products. Even if we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, there is no assurance that either we or our CMOs or other third-party manufacturers will be able to manufacture the approved product to specifications acceptable to the FDA or other regulatory authorities, to produce it in sufficient quantities and on the requisite timelines to meet the requirements for the potential launch of the product, or to meet potential future demand. Additionally, changes in regulatory requirements may require us or our third-party manufacturers to perform additional studies or to modify protocols, processes, materials or facilities for the manufacture of our product candidates or any components thereof. Any of these challenges could delay initiation or completion of clinical trials, require bridging clinical trials or the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of our product candidates, impair commercialization efforts, increase our cost of goods, and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

A variety of risks associated with conducting research and clinical trials abroad and marketing our product candidates internationally could materially adversely affect our business.

We plan to develop and potentially commercialize our product candidates worldwide. Accordingly, we expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to operating in foreign countries, including:

differing regulatory requirements in foreign countries;
unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers, price and exchange controls and other regulatory requirements;
increased difficulties in managing the logistics and transportation of storing and shipping product candidates produced in the U.S. and shipping the product candidate to the patient abroad;
import and export requirements and restrictions;
economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;
compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;
foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;
foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenue, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;
difficulties staffing and managing foreign operations;
workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the U.S.;
differing payor reimbursement regimes, governmental payors or patient self-pay systems, and price controls;
potential liability under the FCPA or comparable foreign regulations;

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challenges enforcing our contractual and intellectual property rights, especially in those foreign countries that do not respect and protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the U.S.;
production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and
business interruptions resulting from geo-political actions, including war and terrorism, such as the ongoing conflict in Ukraine.

These and other risks associated with our potential international operations may materially adversely affect our ability to attain or maintain profitable operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We plan to conduct clinical trials for our product candidates outside the United States, and the FDA may not accept data from trials conducted in such locations.

To date, we have only conducted clinical trials in the United States. However, we may in the future choose to conduct one or more of our clinical trials or include sites in current or future clinical trials outside the United States.

Although the FDA may accept data from sites or clinical trials outside the United States, acceptance of these data is subject to conditions imposed by the FDA. The FDA will generally not consider the data from a foreign clinical trial not conducted under an IND unless (i) the trial was well-designed and well-conducted in accordance with GCP requirements, including requirements for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials in a way that provides assurance that the data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, safety, and well-being of trial subjects are protected, and (ii) the FDA is able to validate the data from the trial through an onsite inspection, if necessary. In cases where data from foreign clinical trials are intended to serve as the sole basis for marketing approval in the U.S., the FDA will generally not approve the application on the basis of foreign data alone unless (i) the data are applicable to the U.S. population and U.S. medical practice; (ii) the trials were performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence; and (iii) the data may be considered valid without the need for an on-site inspection by the FDA or, if the FDA considers such as inspection to be necessary, the FDA is able to validate the data through an on-site inspection or other appropriate means. Additionally, the FDA’s clinical trial requirements, including sufficient size of patient populations and statistical powering must be met. Many foreign regulatory authorities have similar approval requirements. In addition, while these clinical trials or trial sites are subject to the applicable local laws where the trials are conducted, FDA acceptance of the data will depend on its determination that the trials or trial sites also complied with all applicable U.S. laws and regulations. There can be no assurance that the FDA will accept data from trials conducted outside the United States. If the FDA does not accept the data from any trial or trial site outside the United States, it would likely result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and would delay or halt our development of the applicable product candidates.

A disruption to our manufacturing operations, or our or our third-party suppliers’ or manufacturers’ inability to manufacture sufficient quantities of our product candidates at acceptable quality levels or costs, or at all, would materially and adversely affect our business.

Developing manufacturing processes to support clinical studies and commercialization requirements is a difficult and uncertain task, and there are risks associated with scaling to the level required for clinical trials or commercialization, including, among others, cost overruns, potential problems with process scale-out, process reproducibility, stability and purity issues, lot consistency, and timely availability of acceptable reagents and raw materials. If we are unable to scale to the level required for the conduct of clinical trials or commercialization, we may not be able to produce our product candidates in a sufficient quantity to conduct our ongoing and planned clinical trials, or to meet demand if any product candidates are approved for commercialization. We have not yet caused any of our product candidates to be manufactured or processed on a commercial scale and may not be able to do so for any of our product candidates.

We are substantially dependent on our own internal manufacturing facilities in San Diego, California for the production of our product candidates, and we rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of certain components to manufacture our product candidates for use in conducting clinical trials. The facilities used to manufacture our product candidates, including our own facilities, must be evaluated by the FDA or other foreign regulatory agencies pursuant to inspections that will be conducted after we submit an application to the FDA or other foreign regulatory agencies. If the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority finds deficiencies with or does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of our product candidates or if it later finds deficiencies or withdraws any such approval in the future, we may not be able to locate additional or replacement facilities to produce such product candidates or materials in a timely manner and on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. This would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market our product candidates, if approved.

Because we rely on our own manufacturing facilities to produce our product candidates and on third parties for the manufacture of certain components, we are required to transfer certain manufacturing process know-how and certain intermediates to third parties, including larger-scale facilities operated by a CMO or by us, to facilitate manufacture of our product candidates for clinical trials and

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commercialization. Transferring manufacturing testing and processes and know-how is complex and involves review and incorporation of both documented and undocumented processes that may have evolved over time. In addition, transferring production to different facilities may require utilization of new or different processes to meet the specific requirements of a given facility. We and any CMOs or third parties that we engage to manufacture our product candidates will need to conduct significant development work to transfer these processes and manufacture each of our product candidates for clinical trials and commercialization. In addition, we may be required to demonstrate the comparability of material generated by any CMO or third parties that we engage for manufacturing our product candidates with material previously produced and used in testing. Any inability to manufacture comparable drug product by us or our CMOs could delay the continued development of our product candidates.

In addition to relying on third parties for the manufacture of certain components for the manufacture of our product candidates, we manufacture our product candidates ourselves, and intend to manufacture some or all of the clinical supply of our iPSC-derived NK-cell and T-cell product candidates for our ongoing and planned clinical trials. To do so, we will need to scale up our own manufacturing operations, as we do not currently have the infrastructure or capability internally to manufacture sufficient quantities of each of our product candidates to support the conduct of each of our clinical trials or commercialization of each of our product candidates, if approved. Accordingly, we will be required to make significant investments to maintain and expand our existing GMP manufacturing capabilities and facilities, establish additional GMP manufacturing facilities, conduct GMP production, and process and scale up development and technology transfer activities for the manufacture of our product candidates, and our efforts to scale our own manufacturing operations may not succeed.

Even if we are successful in developing manufacturing capabilities sufficient for clinical and commercial supply, problems with our manufacturing operations or those of the third-party manufacturers upon which we rely, including difficulties with production costs and yields, quality control, stability of the product, quality assurance testing, operator error, shortages of qualified personnel, facility shutdowns due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic or other public health concerns, the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, natural disasters or other reasons, as well as compliance with strictly enforced federal, state and foreign regulations, could result in product defects or manufacturing failures that result in lot failures, product recalls, product liability claims or insufficient supplies of our product candidates for our ongoing and planned clinical trials or eventual commercialization. Further, delays in regulatory inspections, commissioning and receiving regulatory approvals for our manufacturing capabilities or facilities, including new facilities, as a result of limited governmental resources due to the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise, could delay our development plans, including the initiation and conduct of our ongoing and planned clinical trials. In addition, we and our third-party manufacturers may have limited manufacturing capacity for certain product candidates or components, and we may fail to locate suitable additional or replacement manufacturing capacity, including for the manufacture of our product candidates in compliance with cGMP or cGTP, on a reasonable basis or at all. Any such failure could be the basis for the FDA to issue a warning letter, withdraw approvals for product candidates previously granted to us, or take other regulatory or legal action, including recall or seizure of outside supplies of the product candidate, total or partial suspension of production, suspension of ongoing clinical trials, refusal to approve pending applications or supplemental applications, detention of product, refusal to permit the import or export of products, injunction or imposing civil and criminal penalties.

Furthermore, certain of the components currently used in manufacturing our product candidates are research-grade only, and we may encounter problems obtaining or achieving adequate quantities and quality of clinical grade materials that meet FDA, European Medicines Agency, or other applicable standards or specifications with consistent and acceptable production yields and costs. In addition, if contaminants are discovered in our supply of product candidates or in our manufacturing facilities or those of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination. Any such events could delay or prevent our ability to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Because our approach to the development of product candidates is based on novel and unproven technologies, it is subject to a substantial degree of technological uncertainty and we may not succeed in developing any of our product candidates.

All of our current product candidates are based on our novel iPSC platform, and some of our product candidates utilize novel genome editing technologies. To date, no iPSC-derived therapeutic product candidates have been approved in the United States or worldwide, and there have been only a limited number of regulatory approvals of genome edited therapeutics, and similarly a limited number of clinical trials involving the use of a therapeutic product candidate manufactured using a master iPSC line or genome edited cells. The development of such complex cell therapies is a relatively new and emerging field, and the scientific research that forms the basis of our efforts to discover and develop iPSC-derived and genome edited cellular immunotherapies is ongoing. We may determine to incorporate information learned from this research into the design of our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trials of our iPSC product candidates, as well as our planned future clinical trials, which could delay or impair our clinical development activities. We may ultimately discover that our product candidates do not possess certain properties required for therapeutic effectiveness or protection from toxicity in our target patient populations, or they may exhibit undesirable side effects as more patient data become available. In addition, our product candidates may demonstrate different chemical and pharmacological properties in patients than they do in laboratory studies. It may take many years before we develop a full understanding of the pharmacological properties of our product

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candidates, and we may never know precisely how they function in vivo. Moreover, our genome editing approach may cause unintended changes to the DNA such as a non-target site gene editing, a large deletion or a DNA translocation, any of which could lead to oncogenesis or other adverse effects. As with any new biologic or product developed using novel technologies, our product candidates have an unknown immunogenicity profile. As a result, our cellular immunotherapy product candidates may trigger immune responses that inhibit their therapeutic effects or cause adverse side effects. In addition, one or more of our product candidates may:

be found ineffective or cause harmful side effects during preclinical studies or clinical trials;
fail to receive necessary regulatory approvals on a timely basis or at all;
be precluded from commercialization by proprietary rights of third parties;
be difficult to manufacture on a large scale; or
be uneconomical to commercialize or fail to achieve market acceptance.

Any such problems that affect one of our product candidates may have an unfavorable impact on all of our product candidates. As a result, we may never succeed in developing a marketable product and we may never become profitable, which would have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and market price of shares of our common stock.

If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical development activities could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

We are required to identify and enroll a sufficient number of patients with the disease under investigation for each of our ongoing and planned clinical trials of our product candidates, and we may not be able to identify and enroll a sufficient number of patients, or those with required or desired characteristics and who meet certain criteria, in a timely manner. In addition, we will be competing with other clinical trials of product candidates being developed by our competitors in the same therapeutic areas, and potential patients who might be eligible for enrollment in one of our clinical trials may instead choose to enroll in a trial being conducted by one of our competitors.

Our ability, and the ability of investigators, to enroll patients in our ongoing and planned clinical trials of our product candidates is affected by factors including:

the ability to identify, solicit and recruit a sufficient number of patients;
severity of the disease under investigation;
design of the trial protocol;
the relatively small size and nature of the patient populations for certain of our clinical trials;
eligibility criteria for the trials in question;
perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study, including any perceived risks associated with our iPSC-derived product candidates, which we believe are the first ever iPSC-derived cell therapies cleared by the FDA for clinical investigation in the United States;
the availability of competing therapies and clinical trials;
efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
the availability of time and resources at the limited number of institutions at which our clinical trials are or will be conducted, including any constraints on resources, or policies and procedures implemented, at hospitals and clinical trial sites as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or other infectious diseases;
the availability of cells suitable for the manufacture of our clinical product candidates from eligible and qualified donors for certain of our product candidates;
the availability of components and agents necessary to enroll and treat prospective patients in our clinical trials, including agents such as cyclophosphamide and fludarabine which are often required to condition patients and the latter of which is reported to be in short supply in the United States and worldwide, or monoclonal antibodies which are intended for administration to patients in combination with our product candidates, in certain of our clinical trials;
the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment, including through remote monitoring if required as a result of precautionary changes implemented at certain clinical trial sites as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic; and

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the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.

In addition, certain of our clinical trial sites at times have delayed or paused patient enrollment in clinical trials as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and supply chain shortages, and quarantines or other travel limitations relating to the COVID-19 pandemic may impede patient movement and affect access to study sites, which may further impact patient enrollment in our clinical trials. The extent and duration of such delays and disruptions, and the overall impact on the timing and conduct of our clinical trials, are uncertain. If we have difficulty enrolling a sufficient number of patients to conduct our clinical trials as planned, we may need to delay or terminate ongoing or planned clinical trials, either of which would have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and market price of shares of our common stock.

The clinical development of our product candidates could be substantially delayed if we are required to conduct unanticipated studies, including preclinical studies or clinical trials, or if the FDA imposes other requirements or restrictions including on the manufacture, of our product candidates.

The FDA may require us to generate additional preclinical, product, manufacturing, or clinical data as a condition to continuing our current clinical trials, or initiating and conducting any future clinical trials of our current product candidates or other cell product candidates that we may identify. Additionally, the FDA may in the future have comments, or impose requirements, on the conduct of our clinical trials or the initiation of clinical trials or any of our other iPSC-derived cell product candidates, including the protocols, processes, materials and facilities we use to manufacture our product candidates and potential future product candidates in support of clinical trials. Any requirements to generate additional data, or redesign or modify our protocols, processes, materials or facilities, or other additional comments, requirements or impositions by the FDA, may cause delays in the initiation or conduct of the current or future clinical trials for our product candidates and subsequent development activities for our product candidates, and could require us to incur additional development or manufacturing costs and resources, seek funding for these increased costs or resources or delay our timeline for, or cease, our preclinical or clinical development activities for our product candidates, or could create uncertainty and additional complexity in our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates.

Further, if the results of our clinical trials are inconclusive, or if there are safety concerns or adverse events associated with our existing product candidates or any other product candidates we may identify, we may:

be delayed in obtaining, or unable to obtain, regulatory approval for such product candidates;
be required to amend the protocols for our clinical trials, perform additional nonclinical studies or clinical trials to support approval or be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements;
obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;
obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings or contraindications; or
in the event a product candidate is approved, have regulatory authorities withdraw their approval of the product or impose restrictions on its use.

Even if our current and planned clinical trials are successful, we will need to conduct additional clinical trials, which may include registrational trials, trials in additional patient populations or under different treatment conditions, and trials using different manufacturing protocols, processes, materials or facilities or under different manufacturing conditions, before we are able to seek approvals for our product candidates from the FDA and regulatory authorities outside the United States to market and sell these product candidates. If we fail to meet the requirements to support continued clinical development, our clinical development activities for any of our product candidates are delayed or suspended, or we fail to obtain or maintain regulatory approvals with an acceptable scope, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed.

We are pursuing multiple programs and product candidates in our novel cell therapy development pipeline using an approach that is designed to enable rapid incorporation of new product features. If we elect to incorporate these new features into next-generation product candidates, this may render our existing product candidates obsolete, and we may devote our limited resources in pursuit of a particular program for which there is a greater potential for success and fail to capitalize on development opportunities or product candidates including those which may be more advanced in development.

We focus on the development of programmed cellular immunotherapies for patients with cancer, including off-the-shelf NK- and T-cell product candidates derived from clonal master engineered iPSC lines. Because our iPSC product platform is designed to enable rapid incorporation of novel functional product features in an evolving clinical setting, we may elect to incorporate these discoveries into next-generation product candidates that render our existing product candidates, including product candidates under clinical development, obsolete. Additionally, because we have limited financial and personnel resources, we may elect or be required to abandon or delay the pursuit of opportunities with existing or future product candidates, including those that may be more advanced

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in development than those we ultimately elect to pursue. For example, in January 2023, we announced the discontinuation of our FT516, FT596, FT538, and FT536 NK cell programs to focus our resources on advancing our most innovative and differentiated programs. We are also expanding our research and development efforts into areas outside of oncology, such as autoimmune diseases, where we have limited or no experience. Due to these factors, our spending on current and future research and development programs and product candidates and the scientific innovation arising from these expenditures, may not yield commercially viable product candidates.

We study our product candidates in patient populations with significant comorbidities that may result in deaths or serious adverse events or unacceptable side effects and require us to abandon or limit our clinical development activities.

Patients treated with our current product candidates may also receive chemotherapy, radiation, and/or other high dose or myeloablative treatments in the course of treatment of their disease, and may therefore experience side effects or adverse events, including death, that are unrelated to our product candidates. While these side effects or adverse events may be unrelated to our product candidates, they may still affect the success of our clinical studies. The inclusion of critically ill patients in our clinical studies may result in deaths or other adverse medical events due to underlying disease or to other therapies or medications that such patients may receive. Any of these events could prevent us from advancing our product candidates through clinical development, and from obtaining regulatory approval, and would impair our ability to commercialize our product candidates. Any inability to advance our existing product candidates or any other product candidate through clinical development would have a material adverse effect on our business, and the value of our common stock would decline.

Because our product candidates are based on novel technologies, it is difficult to predict the regulatory approval process and the time, the cost and our ability to successfully initiate, conduct and complete clinical development, and obtain the necessary regulatory and reimbursement approvals, required for commercialization of our product candidates.

Our cell programming technology and platform for generating cell therapy products using iPSCs represent novel therapeutic approaches, and to our knowledge there are currently no iPSC-derived cell products approved anywhere in the world for commercial sale. As such, it is difficult to accurately predict the type and scope of challenges we may incur during development of our product candidates, and we face uncertainties associated with the preclinical and clinical development, manufacture and regulatory requirements for the initiation and conduct of clinical trials, regulatory approval, and reimbursement required for successful commercialization of these product candidates. In addition, because our iPSC-derived cell product candidates are all in the early clinical or preclinical stage, we are currently assessing safety in humans and have not yet been able to assess the long-term effects of treatment. Animal models and assays may not accurately predict the safety and efficacy of our product candidates in our target patient populations, and appropriate models and assays may not exist for demonstrating the safety and purity of our product candidates, as required by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for ongoing clinical development and regulatory approval.

The preclinical and clinical development, manufacture, and regulatory requirements for approval of novel product candidates such as ours can be more expensive and take longer than for other more well-known or extensively studied pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical product candidates due to a lack of prior experiences on the side of both developers and regulatory agencies. Additionally, due to the uncertainties associated with the preclinical and clinical development, manufacture, and regulatory requirements for approval of our product candidates, we may be required to modify or change our preclinical and clinical development plans or our manufacturing activities and plans, or be required to meet stricter regulatory requirements for approval. Any such modifications or changes could delay or prevent our ability to develop, manufacture, obtain regulatory approval or commercialize our product candidates, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Cellular immunotherapies, and iPSC-derived cell therapies in particular, represent relatively new therapeutic areas, and the FDA has cautioned consumers about potential safety risks associated with cell therapies. To date, there are relatively few approved cell therapies, and the development of any cell therapy may be placed on hold by the FDA upon the detection of any unexpected safety event to evaluate the potential relevance of such novel technology to the occurrence of such safety event, highlighting the technical and regulatory risk of working with new technology. As a result, the regulatory approval process for product candidates such as ours is uncertain and may be more expensive and take longer than the approval process for cell therapy product candidates based on other, better known or more extensively studied technologies and therapeutic approaches.

Regulatory requirements in the United States and in other countries governing the development of cell therapy products have changed frequently and the FDA or other regulatory bodies may change the requirements, or identify different regulatory pathways, for approval for any of our product candidates. The FDA previously established the Office of Tissues and Advanced Therapies (OTAT) within the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) to consolidate the review of cell therapy and related products, and to advise CBER on its review. In September 2022, the FDA announced retitling of OTAT to the Office of Therapeutic Products (OTP) and elevation of OTP to a "Super Office" to meet its growing cell and gene therapy workload and new commitments under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act agreement for fiscal years 2023-2027. It is possible that over time new or different divisions may be established or be granted the responsibility for regulating cell and/or gene therapy products, including iPSC-derived cell

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products, such as ours. As a result, we may be required to change our regulatory strategy or to modify our applications for regulatory approval, which could delay and impair our ability to complete the preclinical and clinical development and manufacture of, and obtain regulatory approval for, our product candidates. Changes in regulatory authorities and advisory groups, or any new requirements or guidelines they promulgate, may lengthen the regulatory review process, require us to perform additional studies, increase our development and manufacturing costs, lead to changes in regulatory pathways, positions and interpretations, delay or prevent approval and commercialization of our product candidates or lead to significant post-approval limitations or restrictions. As we advance our product candidates, we will be required to consult with the FDA and other regulatory authorities, and our product candidates will likely be reviewed by an FDA advisory committee. We also must comply with applicable requirements, and if we fail to do so, we may be required to delay or discontinue development of our product candidates. Delays or unexpected costs in obtaining, or the failure to obtain, the regulatory approval necessary to bring a potential product to market could impair our ability to generate sufficient product revenues to maintain our business.

Preliminary data and interim results we disclose may change as more patient data becomes available or as we make changes to our protocols or manufacturing processes, and such interim results and results from earlier studies may not be predictive of the final results, or of later studies or future clinical trials.

We may from time to time disclose results from preclinical testing or preliminary data or interim results from clinical studies of our product candidates. Such results from preclinical testing, process development and manufacturing activities, and clinical studies, including interim clinical trial results as of specified data cutoff dates and results of earlier clinical studies with similar product candidates, are not necessarily predictive of future results, including later clinical trial results.

The results of our current and future clinical trials may differ from results achieved in earlier preclinical and clinical studies for a variety of reasons, including:

we may not demonstrate the potency and efficacy benefits observed in previous studies;
our efforts to improve, standardize and automate the manufacture and supply of our product candidates and any resulting deviations in the manufacture of our product candidates, may adversely affect the safety, purity, potency, stability, or efficacy of such product candidates;
differences in study design, including differences in conditioning regimens, eligibility criteria, and patient populations;
advancements in the standard of care may affect our ability to demonstrate efficacy or achieve study endpoints in our current or future clinical trials; and
safety issues or adverse events in patients who enroll in our current or future clinical trials.

Additionally, some clinical trials of our product candidates performed to date were generated from open-label studies and are being conducted at a limited number of clinical sites on a limited number of patients. An “open-label” clinical trial is one where both the patient and investigator know whether the patient is receiving the investigational product candidate or either an existing approved drug or placebo. Most typically, open-label clinical trials test only the investigational product candidate and sometimes may do so at different dose levels. Open-label clinical trials are subject to various limitations that may exaggerate any therapeutic effect as patients in open-label clinical trials are aware when they are receiving treatment. Open-label clinical trials may be subject to a “patient bias” where patients perceive their symptoms to have improved merely due to their awareness of receiving an experimental treatment. In addition, open-label clinical trials may be subject to an “investigator bias” where those assessing and reviewing the physiological outcomes of the clinical trials are aware of which treatment regimen patients have received and may interpret the information of the treated group more favorably given this knowledge. Accordingly, the preliminary data from our Phase 1 clinical trials of certain of our product candidates may not be predictive of future clinical trial results for these or other product candidates when studied in a controlled environment or larger patient populations.

From time to time, we also publish interim, “top-line,” or preliminary data from our clinical studies based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data. Preliminary or interim data from clinical trials that we are conducting are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues, the duration of treatment increases and more patient data become available. For example, although we have, from time to time, reported positive interim clinical data for certain of our clinical programs, we may encounter dose-limiting toxicities or unacceptable side effects for these product candidates as dose escalation and expansion progresses in our clinical trials and additional patient data become available. Our preliminary or interim results and related conclusions also are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. Preliminary or “top-line” data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, interim and preliminary data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. Material adverse changes between preliminary, “top-line,” or interim data and final data could significantly harm our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

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Results of clinical testing of any of our existing or future product candidates may fail to show the necessary safety and efficacy required for regulatory approval.

Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any of our product candidates, we must complete preclinical development and then conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy in humans of any such product candidates. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete, and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Our product candidates have a limited history of being evaluated in human clinical trials. Any of our product candidates may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy in later stages of clinical development despite having successfully advanced through initial clinical trials.

There is a high failure rate for drugs and biologics proceeding through clinical trials. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in later stage clinical trials even after achieving promising results in earlier stage clinical trials. Data obtained from preclinical and clinical activities are subject to varying interpretations, which may delay, limit, or prevent regulatory approval. In addition, regulatory delays or rejections may be encountered as a result of many factors, including changes in regulatory policy during the period of product development.

If our product candidates are ultimately not approved for any reason, our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected. In addition, the standard of care may change with the approval of new products for the same indications that we are studying.

We are subject to risks associated with the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, which could seriously impact the research and development of our product candidates.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has broadly affected the global economy, resulted in significant travel and work restrictions in many regions and put a significant strain on healthcare resources. The pandemic has had, and may continue to have, an impact on our operations and on the operations of our collaborators, third-party contractors and other entities, including governmental agencies with which we interact. For example, in the first two years of the pandemic, state and local regulations required a significant portion of our employees to work remotely, which had an impact on our operations and research and development of our product candidates. We have also experienced delays in obtaining materials and supplies needed to maintain our operations and manufacture our product candidates as a result of production shortages experienced by our suppliers. Additionally, at times we have been subject to temporary pauses in enrollment and dosing implemented by some clinical trial sites due to COVID-19, and some clinical trial sites have also restricted initiation of new trials at times as well as visits by sponsors and clinical research organizations (CROs) for ongoing trials to protect both site staff and patients from possible COVID-19 exposure.

The COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of new variants, has impacted, and may in the future impact, the clinical development of our product candidates if we are subject to restrictions or limitations on, or delays in, the performance of study procedures (particularly any procedures that may be deemed non-essential), participant dosing, distribution of our product candidates or clinical trial materials, study monitoring, or site inspections and data analysis, including as a result of changes in hospital or research institution policies, federal, state or local regulations, prioritization of hospital and other medical resources toward pandemic efforts, reduced availability of site staff supporting the conduct of clinical trials, heightened risks of exposure of study participants, principal investigators or site staff to COVID-19 if an outbreak occurs in their geographic region, or other reasons related to the pandemic. Quarantine or other travel limitations (whether voluntary or required) also may impede participant movement, affect access to study sites, or interrupt healthcare services.

Furthermore, the pandemic could cause delays in review and response times by the FDA and other regulatory agencies, or such health regulatory agencies may refuse to accept data from our clinical trials due to mitigation strategies we implement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health concerns and current regulatory guidance. In addition, our ability to manufacture and ship our product candidates for our clinical trials may be impacted if we, or any third parties which manufacture and supply materials used in either the manufacture of our product candidates or the conduct of our research and development activities, or which perform certain testing relating to our product candidates, are adversely impacted by restrictions resulting from the coronavirus outbreak. There is also the potential that manufacturing facilities, equipment, and materials required for manufacture or administration of our product candidates could be commandeered under the Defense Production Act of 1950, or equivalent foreign legislation, which may make it more difficult to obtain materials, equipment, or manufacturing slots necessary for the clinical supply of our product candidates.

The extent to which the pandemic affects our operations and the research and development of our product candidates will depend on continuously changing circumstances, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the duration of the pandemic, including the continued emergence of new variants of the virus, which may impact rates of infection and vaccination efforts and effectiveness, developments or perceptions regarding the safety of vaccines, future waves of infection, and the effectiveness of actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, including vaccination campaigns. While the ultimate

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impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business is highly uncertain, any negative impacts that materialize could materially adversely affect our clinical development and operations, financial performance and stock price.

Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, our products will remain subject to regulatory scrutiny.

Any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval, along with the manufacturing protocols, processes, materials and facilities, qualification testing, post-approval clinical data, labeling and promotional activities for such product, will be subject to continual and additional requirements of the FDA and other regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information, reports, registration and listing requirements, requirements relating to current cGMP, applicable product tracking and tracing requirements, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, and recordkeeping. Even if marketing approval of a product candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to conditions of approval, or contain requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product. Additionally, under FDORA, sponsors of approved drugs and biologics must provide 6 months' notice to the FDA of any changes in marketing status, such as the withdrawal of a drug, and failure to do so could result in the FDA placing the product on a list of discontinued products, which would revoke the product's ability to be marketed. The FDA closely regulates the post-approval marketing and promotion of pharmaceutical and biological products to ensure such products are marketed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with our product candidates, manufacturing operations, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may lead to various adverse conditions, including significant delays in bringing our product candidates to market and/or being precluded from manufacturing or selling our product candidates, any of which could significantly harm our business.

We may seek regenerative medicine advanced therapy, or RMAT, designation for certain of our product candidates, but such designation may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process and we may be unable to obtain or maintain the benefits associated with such designation.

We may seek regenerative medicine advanced therapy, or RMAT, designation from the FDA for certain of our product candidates. A product candidate is eligible for RMAT designation if: (1) it is a cell therapy, therapeutic tissue engineering product, human cell or tissue product, or a combination product using any such therapies or products; (2) it is intended to treat, modify, reverse, or cure a serious or life-threatening disease or condition; and (3) there is preliminary clinical evidence that indicates that the product candidate has the potential to address unmet medical needs for such disease or condition. This program is intended to facilitate efficient development and expedite review of RMATs. A BLA for a product candidate with RMAT designation may be eligible for priority review or accelerated approval through (1) surrogate or intermediate endpoints reasonably likely to predict long-term clinical benefit or (2) reliance upon data obtained from a meaningful number of sites. Benefits of such designation also include early interactions with the FDA to discuss any potential surrogate or intermediate endpoint to be used to support accelerated approval. A product candidate that has RMAT designation and is subsequently granted accelerated approval and is subject to post-approval requirements may fulfill such requirements through the submission of clinical evidence, clinical studies, patient registries, or other sources of real-world evidence, such as electronic health records; the collection of larger confirmatory data sets; or post-approval monitoring of all patients treated with such therapy prior to its approval. RMAT designation is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe one of our product candidates meets the criteria for RMAT designation, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to grant such designation. In any event, the receipt of RMAT designation for a product candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to product candidates considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if one or more of our product candidates qualifies for RMAT designation, the FDA may later decide that the product candidate no longer meets the conditions for qualification.

We may rely on orphan drug status to develop and commercialize certain of our product candidates, but orphan drug designations may not confer marketing exclusivity or other expected commercial benefits and we may not be able to obtain orphan drug designations for our other product candidates.

We may rely on orphan drug exclusivity for product candidates that we may develop. Orphan drug status confers seven years of marketing exclusivity in the United States under the FDCA, and up to ten years of marketing exclusivity in Europe for a particular product in a specified indication, subject to certain conditions. However, we may be unable to obtain orphan drug designations for any of our product candidates that we are currently developing or may pursue. Even if we do obtain orphan drug designations and are the first to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates for the applicable indications, we will not be able to rely on these designations to exclude other companies from manufacturing or selling biological products using the same principal molecular structural features for the same indication beyond these timeframes. Furthermore, any marketing exclusivity in Europe can be reduced from ten years to six years if the initial designation criteria have significantly changed since the market authorization of the orphan product.

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For any product candidate for which we may be granted orphan drug designation in a particular indication, it is possible that another company also holding orphan drug designation for the same product candidate will receive marketing approval for the same indication before we do. If that were to happen, our applications for that indication may not be approved until the competing company’s period of exclusivity expires. Even if we are the first to obtain marketing authorization for an orphan drug indication in the United States, there are circumstances under which a competing product may be approved for the same indication during the seven-year period of marketing exclusivity, such as if the later product is shown to be clinically superior to our orphan product, or if the later product is deemed a different product than ours. Further, the seven-year marketing exclusivity would not prevent competitors from obtaining approval of the same product candidate as ours for indications other than those in which we have been granted orphan drug designation, or for the use of other types of products in the same indications as our orphan product.

We may seek designation for our cell programming technology as a designated platform technology, but we might not receive such designation, and even if we do, such designation may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

We may seek designation for our cell programming technology as designated platform technology. Under FDORA, a platform technology incorporated within or utilized by a drug or biological product is eligible for designation as a designated platform technology if (1) the platform technology is incorporated in, or utilized by, a drug approved under a BLA or NDA; (2) preliminary evidence submitted by the sponsor of the approved or licensed drug, or a sponsor that has been granted a right of reference to data submitted in the application for such drug, demonstrates that the platform technology has the potential to be incorporated in, or utilized by, more than one drug without an adverse effect on quality, manufacturing, or safety; and (3) data or information submitted by the applicable person indicates that incorporation or utilization of the platform technology has a reasonable likelihood to bring significant efficiencies to the drug development or manufacturing process and to the review process. A sponsor may request the FDA to designate a platform technology as a designated platform technology concurrently with, or at any time after, submission of an IND application for a drug that incorporates or utilizes the platform technology that is the subject of the request. If so designated, the FDA may expedite the development and review of any subsequent original BLA or NDA for a drug that uses or incorporates the platform technology. Even if we believe our cell programming technology meets the criteria for such designation, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to grant such designation. In addition, the receipt of such designation for a platform technology does not ensure that a drug will be developed more quickly or lead to a faster FDA review or approval process and does not assure ultimate FDA approval of a drug. Moreover, the FDA may revoke a designation if the FDA determines that a designated platform technology no longer meets the criteria for such designation.

We may be subject to certain regulations, including federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, physician payment transparency laws, anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws and health information privacy and security laws. Any actual or perceived failure to comply with these regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

If we obtain FDA approval for any of our product candidates and begin commercializing those products in the United States, our operations may be subject to various federal and state healthcare laws, including, without limitation, fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, data privacy and security laws, as well as transparency laws regarding payments or other items of value provided to healthcare providers. These laws may impact, among other things, our proposed sales, marketing and education programs. Additionally, we may be subject to state and foreign equivalents of such healthcare laws and regulations, some of which may be broader in scope and may apply regardless of the payor, as well as patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge and may not comply under one or more of such laws, regulations, and guidance. Law enforcement authorities are increasingly focused on enforcing fraud and abuse laws, and it is possible that some of our practices may be challenged under these laws. Efforts to ensure that our current and future business arrangements with third parties, and our business generally, will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. If our operations, including our arrangements with physicians and other healthcare providers are found to be in violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including, without limitation, administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs (such as Medicare and Medicaid), and imprisonment, as well as additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.

The scope and enforcement of these laws is uncertain and subject to rapid change in the current environment of healthcare reform, especially in light of the lack of applicable precedent and regulations. Federal and state enforcement has led to a number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions and settlements in the healthcare industry. Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations.

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The provision of benefits or advantages to physicians to induce or encourage the prescription, recommendation, endorsement, purchase, supply, order or use of medicinal products is prohibited in the European Union. The provision of benefits or advantages to physicians is also governed by the national anti-bribery laws of European Union Member States, such as the UK Bribery Act 2010. Infringement of these laws could result in substantial fines and individual imprisonment.

Payments made to physicians in certain European Union Member States must be publicly disclosed. Moreover, agreements with physicians often must be the subject of prior notification and approval by the physician’s employer, his or her competent professional organization and/or the regulatory authorities of the individual European Union Member States. These requirements are provided in the national laws, industry codes or professional codes of conduct, applicable in the European Union Member States. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in reputational risk, public reprimands, administrative penalties, fines or individual imprisonment.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We are, and expect to continue to be, dependent on third parties to conduct some or all aspects of manufacturing of our product candidates for use in clinical trials and for commercial sale, if approved. Our business could be harmed if those third parties fail to perform satisfactorily.

While we currently manufacture our iPSC-derived cell product candidates at our cGMP facilities located in San Diego, California, we also rely, on third parties to manufacture certain components required for the manufacture of our product candidates, and we may rely on third parties to conduct some or all aspects of manufacturing of our product candidates for use in conducting later stage clinical trials and for commercial sale upon approval of any of our product candidates.

Reliance on third parties for manufacture of our product candidates and components utilized in manufacturing our product candidates entails certain risks, including reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance and quality assurance, the possibility that the third-party manufacturer does not maintain the financial, personnel or other resources to meet its obligations, the possibility that the third party fails to manufacture such components, or our product candidates or any products we may eventually commercialize, in accordance with our specifications, misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how, and the possibility of termination of our manufacturing relationship by the third party, based on its own business priorities, at a time that is costly or damaging to us. In addition, the FDA and other regulatory authorities require that our product candidates and any products that we may eventually commercialize be manufactured according to cGMP, cGTP and similar jurisdictional standards. These requirements include, among other things, quality control, quality assurance and the maintenance of records and documentation. The FDA or similar foreign regulatory agencies may also implement new standards at any time, or change their interpretations and enforcement of existing standards for manufacture, packaging or testing of products. We have little control over our manufacturers’ compliance with these regulations and standards.

In some cases, the technical skills required to manufacture our product candidates may be unique or proprietary to a particular CMO, and we may have difficulty, or there may be contractual restrictions prohibiting us from, transferring such skills to a back-up or alternate supplier if needed, or we may be unable to transfer such skills at all. In addition, if we are required to change contract manufacturers for any reason, we will be required to verify that the new CMO maintains facilities and procedures that comply with quality standards and with all applicable regulations. We will also need to verify, such as through a manufacturing comparability study, that any new manufacturing process will produce our product candidate according to the specifications previously submitted to the FDA or another regulatory authority. The delays associated with the verification of a new CMO could negatively affect our ability to develop product candidates or commercialize our products in a timely manner or within budget. In addition, changes in manufacturers often involve changes in manufacturing procedures and processes, which could require that we conduct bridging studies between our prior clinical supply used in our clinical trials and that of any new manufacturer. We may be unsuccessful in demonstrating the comparability of clinical supplies produced by different manufacturers, which could require the conduct of additional clinical trials.

Further, we depend in some instances on third party suppliers, including sole source suppliers, for the provision of reagents, materials, devices and equipment that are used by us and our third-party contract manufacturers in the production of our product candidates, including certain of our iPSC-derived cell therapy product candidates. Any disruption to or loss of supply from any of these suppliers could delay our clinical development and commercialization efforts, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

The termination of our collaboration with Janssen will have a material impact on our business and could result in disruptions to our operations that have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

The termination of our Collaboration and Option Agreement with Janssen is expected to take effect on April 3, 2023. As a result of this termination, we have discontinued development of two collaboration candidates that were expected to enter clinical development in 2023. We have also prioritized our pipeline and substantially reduced our operating costs, including by implementing

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a company-wide reduction in force, to fund our operations into the second half of 2025. For more information on the termination of our collaboration with Janssen, see the section titled, "Business - Discontinued Product Candidates". For more information on the risks associated with our reduction in force, see "- Risks Related to Our Business and Industry".

We depend on strategic partnerships and collaboration arrangements for the development and commercialization of certain of our product candidates in certain indications or geographic territories, and if these arrangements are unsuccessful, this could result in delays and other obstacles in the development, manufacture or commercialization of any of our product candidates and materially harm our results of operations.

Our strategy for fully developing and commercializing our product candidates is dependent upon maintaining our current arrangements and establishing new arrangements with research collaborators, corporate collaborators and other third parties. We currently have a corporate collaboration agreement with Ono; our collaboration with Janssen will terminate effective April 2023. Our collaboration agreement with Ono provides for, among other things, research funding and significant future payments should certain development, regulatory and commercial milestones be achieved. Under our arrangement with Ono and any future corporate arrangements that we may form, our corporate collaborators may be responsible for:

electing to advance product candidates through preclinical and into clinical development;
conducting clinical development and obtaining required regulatory approvals for product candidates; and
commercializing any resulting products.

As a result, we may not be able to conduct such corporate collaborations in the manner or on the time schedule we currently contemplate, which may negatively impact our business operations.

Our lack of control over the research funding for, and the development and commercialization of, certain of our product candidates being developed under the Ono Agreement and any other product candidates that we may develop under a future arrangement could cause delays or other difficulties in the development and commercialization of any of our product candidates, which may prevent completion of research and development activities and intended regulatory filings in a timely fashion, if at all. Because we expect to continue to rely on our current collaborator and to enter into new collaborations in the future, the development and commercialization of any of our product candidates could be substantially delayed, and our ability to receive future funding could be substantially impaired if one or more of our current or future collaborators:

shifts its priorities and resources away from our collaborations due to a change in business strategies, or a merger, acquisition, sale or downsizing of its company or business unit;
ceases development in therapeutic areas which are the subject of our collaboration;
fails to select a product candidate for advancement into preclinical development, clinical development, or subsequent clinical development into a marketed product;
changes the success criteria for a particular product candidate, thereby delaying or ceasing development of such product candidate;
significantly delays the initiation or conduct of certain activities which could delay our receipt of milestone payments tied to such activities, thereby impacting our ability to fund our own activities;
develops a product candidate that competes, either directly or indirectly, with our product candidates;
does not obtain the requisite regulatory approval of a product candidate;
does not successfully commercialize a product candidate;
encounters regulatory, resource or quality issues and be unable to meet demand requirements;
exercises its rights under the agreement to terminate the collaboration, as Janssen did in January 2023, or otherwise withdraws support for, or otherwise impairs development under the collaboration;
disagrees on the research, development or commercialization of a product candidate resulting in a delay in milestones, royalty payments or termination of such product candidate; and
uses our proprietary information or intellectual property in such a way as to jeopardize our rights in such property.

In addition, the termination of the Ono Agreement or any future strategic partnership or collaboration arrangement that we enter into may prevent us from receiving any milestone, royalty payment, sharing of profits, and other benefits under such agreement. Furthermore, disagreements with these parties could require or result in litigation or arbitration, which would be time-consuming and

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expensive. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our ability to develop and commercialize any of our product candidates and may adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.

Cell-based therapies depend on the availability of reagents and specialized materials and equipment which in each case are required to be acceptable to the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies, and such reagents, materials, and equipment may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. We rely on third-party suppliers for various components, materials and equipment required for the conduct of our clinical trials and the manufacture of our product candidates and do not have supply arrangements for certain of these components.

The development and manufacturing of our product candidates requires many reagents and other specialty materials and equipment, some of which are manufactured or supplied by small companies with limited resources and experience to support commercial biologics production. To date, we and our CMOs have purchased equipment, materials and disposables used for the manufacture of our existing product candidates from third-party suppliers. Some of these suppliers may not have the capacity to support commercial products manufactured under cGMP by biopharmaceutical firms or may otherwise be ill-equipped to support our needs. Reagents and other key materials from these suppliers may have inconsistent attributes and introduce variability into our manufactured product candidates, which may contribute to variable patient outcomes and possible adverse events. We rely on the general commercial availability of materials and equipment required for the manufacture of our product candidates, and do not have supply contracts with many of these suppliers and may not be able to obtain supply contracts with them on acceptable terms or at all. Even if we are able to enter into such contracts, we may be limited to a sole third-party for the supply of certain required components and equipment.

In addition, the clinical development of our product candidates depends on the availability of certain materials and agents used in our clinical trials. For example, certain of our clinical trial protocols require the use of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, agents which are routinely used in oncology studies, and which we use in our clinical trial protocols to condition patients for treatment with our product candidates. Further, we intend to develop certain of our product candidates as a combination therapy with other cancer therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies, requiring availability and use of these monoclonal antibodies in certain of our clinical trial protocols. Recently, the FDA has reported a shortage of fludarabine, and some clinical trial sites may in the future institute enrollment holds or halt enrollment of patients if sufficient quantities of fludarabine cannot be secured. We cannot predict the extent and duration of this shortage of fludarabine, although any failure or delays by us or by our clinical sites to obtain sufficient quantities of fludarabine, monoclonal antibodies required under our protocols, or other components and agents necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials, may delay our ability to enroll and treat patients in, or complete, our current or future clinical trials of our product candidates on time, if at all.

As a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic or other public health crises, the business and operations of our suppliers and other third parties which produce agents and materials used in our clinical trials or manufacturing of our product candidates may be disrupted or delayed, and we in turn may experience disruptions or delays in our supply chain. A delay or inability to continue to source product or materials from any of these suppliers or third parties, which could be due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic or other pandemics, the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, regulatory actions or requirements affecting the supplier, adverse financial or other strategic developments experienced by a supplier, labor disputes or shortages, unexpected demands, or quality issues, could adversely affect our ability to manufacture our product candidates and our ability to conduct clinical trials, which could significantly harm our business.

If we are required to change suppliers, or modify the components, equipment, materials or disposables used for the manufacture of our product candidates, we may be required to change our manufacturing operations or clinical trial protocols or to provide additional data to regulatory authorities in order to use any alternative components, equipment, materials or disposables, any of which could set back, delay, or increase the costs required to complete our clinical development and commercialization of our product candidates. Additionally, any such change or modification may adversely affect the safety, efficacy, stability, or potency of our product candidates, and could adversely affect our clinical development of our product candidates and harm our business.

We currently rely on third parties to conduct certain research and development activities and clinical trials of our product candidates. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, we may not be able to timely develop, manufacture, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates and our business could be substantially harmed.

We rely upon third parties, including medical institutions, clinical investigators, and CROs for the conduct of certain research and preclinical development activities, process development and manufacturing activities, and for the conduct, management, and supervision of clinical trials of our product candidates. We do not have direct control over the activities of these third parties, and may have limited influence over their actual performance. Our reliance on these third parties and CROs does not relieve us of our responsibilities to ensure that our clinical studies are conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal and regulatory requirements and scientific standards.

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We are responsible for complying, and we are responsible for ensuring that our third-party service providers and CROs comply, with applicable GCP for conducting activities for all of our product candidates in clinical development, including conducting our clinical trials, and recording and reporting data from these trials. Regulatory authorities enforce these regulations through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. We cannot assure that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with applicable GCP requirements. In addition, our registrational clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under applicable regulatory requirements.

If these third parties and CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations, meet expected deadlines or successfully complete activities as planned, or if the quality or accuracy of the research, preclinical development, process development, manufacturing, or clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to applicable regulatory and manufacturing requirements or for other reasons, our research, preclinical development, process development and manufacturing activities, and clinical trials, and the development of our product candidates, may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates. Further, if our agreements with third parties or CROs are terminated for any reason, the development of our product candidates may be delayed or impaired, and we may be unable to advance our product candidates. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed or impaired.

If conflicts arise between us and our collaborators or strategic partners, these parties may act in a manner adverse to us and could limit our ability to implement our strategies.

If conflicts arise between our corporate or academic collaborators or strategic partners and us, the other party may act in a manner adverse to us and could limit our ability to implement our strategies. Some of our academic collaborators and strategic partners are conducting multiple product development efforts within each area that is the subject of the collaboration with us. Our collaborators or strategic partners, however, may develop, either alone or with others, products in related fields that are competitive with the products or potential products that are the subject of these collaborations. Competing products, either developed by the collaborators or strategic partners or to which the collaborators or strategic partners have rights, may result in the withdrawal of our collaborators' or partners' support for our product candidates.

Some of our collaborators or strategic partners could also become our competitors in the future. Our collaborators or strategic partners could develop competing products, preclude us from entering into collaborations with their competitors, fail to obtain timely regulatory approvals, terminate their agreements with us prematurely, or fail to devote sufficient resources to the development and commercialization of our product candidates. Any of these developments could harm our product development efforts.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, or obtain and maintain patent protection for our technology and product candidates, other companies could develop products based on our discoveries, which may reduce demand for our products and harm our business.

Our commercial success will depend in part on our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates, the operations used to manufacture them and the methods for using them, and also for our cell programming technology in order to prevent third parties from making, using, selling, offering to sell or importing our product candidates or otherwise exploiting our cell programming approach. The scope of patent protection in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical field involves complex legal and scientific questions and can be uncertain. One aspect of the determination of patentability of our inventions depends on the scope and content of the “prior art,” information that was or is deemed available to a person of skill in the relevant art prior to the priority date of the claimed invention. There may be prior art of which we are not aware that may affect the patentability of our patent claims or, if issued, affect the validity or enforceability of a patent claim. Further, we may not be aware of all third-party intellectual property rights potentially relating to our product candidates or their intended uses, and as a result the impact of such third-party intellectual property rights upon the patentability of our own patents and patent applications, as well as the impact of such third-party intellectual property upon our freedom to operate, is highly uncertain. Because patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for typically a period of 18 months after filing, or may not be published at all, we cannot be certain that we were the first to file any patent application related to our product candidates. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability, and commercial value of our patent rights are uncertain. We own and have exclusive licenses to patent portfolios for our product candidates and cell programming technology, although we cannot be certain that our existing patents and patent applications provide adequate protection or that any additional patents will issue to us with claims that provide adequate protection of our other product candidates. Further, we cannot predict the breadth of claims that may be enforced in our patents if we attempt to enforce them or if they are challenged in court or in other proceedings. If we are unable to secure and maintain protection for our product candidates and cell programming technology, or if any patents we obtain or license are deemed invalid and unenforceable, our ability to commercialize or license our technology could be adversely affected.

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Others have filed, and in the future are likely to file, patent applications covering products and technologies that are similar, identical or competitive to ours or important to our business. Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing, and some remain so until issued, we cannot be certain that any patent application owned by a third party will not have priority over patent applications filed or in-licensed by us, or that we or our licensors will not be involved in interference, opposition, reexamination, review, reissue, post grant review or invalidity proceedings before U.S. or non-U.S. patent offices. The scope, validity or enforceability of our patents or the patents of our licensors may be challenged in such proceedings in either the courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad, and our business may be harmed if the coverage of our patents or the patents of our licensors is narrowed, or if a patent of ours or our licensors is judged invalid or unenforceable, in any such proceedings.

We depend on our licensors to prosecute and maintain patents and patent applications that are material to our business. Any failure by our licensors to effectively protect these intellectual property rights could adversely affect our business and operations.

Certain rights to our key technologies and product candidates, including intellectual property relating to our iPSC technology, are licensed from third parties. As a licensee of third-party intellectual property, we rely on our licensors to file and prosecute patent applications and maintain patents, and otherwise protect the licensed intellectual property under some of our license agreements. We have not had and do not have primary control over these activities for certain of our licensed patents, patent applications and other intellectual property rights, and we cannot be certain that such activities will result in valid and enforceable patents and other intellectual property rights. Additionally, our licensors may have the right to control enforcement of our licensed patents or defense of any claims asserting the invalidity of these patents and we cannot be certain that our licensors will allocate sufficient resources or prioritize enforcement of such patents or defense of such claims to protect our interests in the licensed patents. Even if we are not a party to these legal actions, an adverse outcome could harm our business because it might prevent us from continuing to license intellectual property that we may need to operate our business.

If we fail to comply with our obligations under our license agreements, we could lose rights to our product candidates or key technologies.

We have obtained rights to develop, market and sell some of our product candidates through intellectual property license agreements with third parties. These license agreements impose various diligence, milestone payment, royalty and other obligations on us. In particular, under our Amended and Restated Exclusive License Agreement dated May 15, 2018 (the Amended MSK License) with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), in the event a licensed product achieves a specified clinical milestone, MSK is eligible to receive from us certain milestone payments totaling up to $75.0 million based on the price of our common stock, where the amount of such payments owed to MSK is contingent upon certain increases in the price of our common stock following the date of achievement of such clinical milestone. If we fail to comply with our obligations under our license agreements, including any payment obligations, we could lose some or all of our rights to develop, market and sell products covered by these licenses, and our ability to form collaborations or partnerships may be impaired. In addition, disputes may arise under our license agreements with third parties, which could prevent or impair our ability to maintain our current licensing arrangements on acceptable terms and to develop and commercialize the affected product candidates.

We may be involved in litigation or other proceedings from time to time relating to the enforcement or defense of patent and other intellectual property rights, which could cause us to divert our resources and could put our intellectual property at risk.

To prevent infringement or unauthorized use of our intellectual property, we have in the past, and may in the future, need to file infringement claims. For example, in May 2022, we filed a patent infringement lawsuit in the Southern District of California against Shoreline Biosciences, Inc. and Dr. Dan Kaufman. Refer to Item 3. Legal Proceedings in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a more detailed description of this matter. When we pursue litigation to stop another party from using the inventions claimed in any patents we own or control, that party has the right to ask the court to rule that such patents are invalid or should not be enforced against that third party. In addition to patent infringement lawsuits, we may decide to file interferences, oppositions, ex parte reexaminations, post-grant review, or inter partes review proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the USPTO) and corresponding foreign patent offices. Litigation and other proceedings relating to intellectual property are unpredictable and expensive, and may consume time and resources and divert the attention of managerial and scientific personnel. Such litigations and proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for research, development, and other activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings or may be required to divert such resources from our ongoing and planned research and development activities. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating or successfully challenging our intellectual property rights. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace.

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There also is a risk that a court or patent office in such proceeding will decide that our patents or the patents of our licensors are not valid or are not enforceable, and that we do not have the right to stop the other party from using the inventions. Additionally, even if the validity of such patents is upheld, the court may refuse to stop the other party on the ground that such other party’s activities do not infringe our rights to such patents. If we are not successful in enforcing or defending our intellectual property, our competitors could develop and market products based on our discoveries and technologies, which may reduce the commercial viability of, and demand for, our product candidates and any future products.

We or our strategic partners may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent or delay our product development efforts and stop us from commercializing, or increase the costs of commercializing, our product candidates.

Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. There is a substantial amount of litigation, both within and outside the United States, involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, including patent infringement lawsuits, interferences, oppositions, ex parte reexaminations, post-grant review, and inter partes review proceedings before the USPTO and corresponding foreign patent offices. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications, which are owned by third parties, exist in the fields in which we are developing product candidates. As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our product candidates may be subject to claims of infringement of the patent rights or misappropriation of other intellectual property rights of third parties.

We cannot be certain that any of our patent searches or analyses, including the identification of relevant patents, the scope of patent claims or the expiration of relevant patents, are complete or thorough, nor can we be certain that we have identified each and every third-party patent and pending application in the United States and abroad that is relevant to or necessary for the commercialization of our product candidates in any jurisdiction. The scope of a patent claim is determined by an interpretation of the law, the written disclosure in a patent and the patent’s prosecution history. Our interpretation of the relevance or the scope of a patent or a pending application may be incorrect, which may negatively impact our ability to market our products. We may incorrectly determine that our products are not covered by a third-party patent or intellectual property rights, or may incorrectly predict whether a third-party’s pending application will issue with claims of relevant scope. Our determination of the expiration date of any patent in the United States or abroad that we consider relevant may be incorrect, which may negatively impact our ability to develop and market our product candidates. Our failure to identify and correctly interpret relevant patents may negatively impact our ability to develop and market our products.

We cannot guarantee that the manufacture, use or marketing of our existing product candidates or any other product candidates that we develop, or the use of our cell programming technology, will not infringe third-party patents. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims to materials, cell compositions, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our product candidates. Our competitors may have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications covering products and technologies similar to ours. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications which may later result in issued patents that our product candidates may infringe. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents.

Third parties asserting their patent or other intellectual property rights against us may seek and obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize our product candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations. Defense of these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of management and other employee resources from our business, cause development delays, and may impact our reputation. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may have to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees for willful infringement, obtain one or more licenses from third parties, pay royalties, or redesign our infringing products, which may be impossible on a cost-effective basis or require substantial time and monetary expenditure. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize our product candidates, which could harm our business significantly. Claims that we have misappropriated the confidential information or trade secrets of third parties could have a similar negative impact on our business.

We may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights to product components and processes for development or manufacture of our product candidates which may cause us to operate our business in a more costly or otherwise adverse manner that was not anticipated.

We own or license from third parties certain intellectual property rights necessary to develop and manufacture our product candidates. The growth of our business will likely depend in part on our ability to acquire or in-license additional proprietary rights, including to advance our research or allow commercialization of our product candidates. In that event, we may be required to expend considerable time and resources to develop or license replacement technology. For example, our programs may involve additional technologies or product candidates that may require the use of additional proprietary rights held by third parties. Furthermore, other pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies and academic institutions may also have filed or are planning to file patent applications

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potentially relevant to our business. From time to time, in order to avoid infringing these third-party patents, we may be required to license technology from additional third parties to further develop or commercialize our product candidates. We may be unable to acquire or in-license any relevant third-party intellectual property rights, including any such intellectual property rights required to manufacture, use or sell our product candidates, that we identify as necessary or important to our business operations. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all, and as a result we may be unable to develop or commercialize the affected product candidates, which would harm our business. We may need to cease use of the compositions or methods covered by such third-party intellectual property rights, and may need to seek to develop alternative approaches or technology that do not infringe on such intellectual property rights which may entail additional costs and development delays, even if we were able to develop such alternatives, which may not be feasible. Even if we are able to obtain a license under such intellectual property rights, any such license may be non-exclusive, which may allow our competitors’ access to the same technologies licensed to us.